A very natural concept and important tool in the study of monoids is the idea of having monoids acting on certain (finite) sets. This provides a way to turn any monoid into a (finite) transformation monoid.
Let M be a monoid and D a set. An action of M on D is a map
(d, m) → d\^{m} : D × M → D |
In contrast to group operations (see chapter "Operations of Groups"), a monoid action often comes with a natural grading that can be used to carry out certain calculations more efficiently. To be precise we work with the following concept. Let M be a monoid acting on the set D. A grading is a map g : D → {1, 2, 3, ...} such that g(d) ≥ g(d\^{m}) for all d ∈ D and all m ∈ M. The trivial grading is the map given by g(d) = 1 for all d ∈ D.
In GAP3 a monoid usually acts on a set via the caret operator ^
.
This action is refered to as the canonical action. It is, however,
possible to define other actions (see Other Actions).
This chapter describes functions that deal with finite actions of monoids. There are functions for different types of orbit calculations depending on whether a grading is used and if so how (see Orbit for Monoids, ShortOrbit, GradedOrbit). Then there are functions which construct the transformation monoid corresponding to a particular action of a monoid M on a set D (see Action and ActionWithZero) where, if necessary, an additional point 0 is added to the domain D.
The functions described here are in the file "action.g"
.
Most of the operations for groups can be applied as monoid actions (see "Other Operations"). In addition to these there are a couple of actions which are particular to monoids.
The functions described in this chapter generally deal with the action of
monoid elements defined by the canonical action that is denoted with the
caret (^
) in GAP3. However, they also allow you to specify other
actions. Such actions are specified by functions, which are accepted as
optional argument by all the functions described here.
An action function must accept two arguments. The first argument will be the point and the second will be the monoid element. The function must return the image of the point under the monoid element in the action that it specifies.
As an example, the function OnPairs
that specifies the action on pairs
could be defined as follows
OnPairs := function ( pair, m ) return [ pair[1] ^ m, pair[2] ^ m ]; end;
The following monoid actions are predefined.
OnPoints
:
OnPairs
:
OnTuples
:OnPairs
is the
special case of OnTuples
for tuples with two elements.
OnSets
:
OnRight
:
OnLeftAntiAction
:
OnLClasses
:
OnRClassesAntiAction
:
Note that it is your responsibility to make sure that the elements of the
domain D on which you are acting are already in normal form. The
reason is that all functions will compare points using the =
operation.
For example, if you are acting on sets with OnSets
, you will get an
error message it not all elements of the domain are sets.
gap> OnSets(Transformation( [ 1, 2 ] ), [ 2, 1 ] ); Error, OnSets: <tuple> must be a set
Orbit( M, d )
Orbit( M, d, action )
The orbit of a point d under the action of a monoid M is the set {d\^{m} | m ∈ M} of all points that are images of d under some element m ∈ M.
In the first form Orbit
computes the orbit of point d under the
monoid M with respect to the canonical action OnPoints
.
In the second form Orbit
computes the orbit of point d under the
monoid M with respect to the action action.
gap> M:= Monoid( [ Transformation( [ 5, 4, 4, 2, 1 ] ), > Transformation( [ 2, 5, 5, 4, 1 ] ) ] ) ;; gap> Orbit(M, 1); [ 1, 5, 2, 4 ] gap> Orbit(M, 3, OnPoints); [ 3, 4, 5, 2, 1 ] gap> Orbit(M, [1,2], OnSets); [ [ 1, 2 ], [ 4, 5 ], [ 2, 5 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 1, 5 ], [ 2, 4 ] ] gap> Orbit(M, [1,2], OnPairs); [ [ 1, 2 ], [ 5, 4 ], [ 2, 5 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 4, 1 ], [ 5, 1 ], [ 5, 2 ], [ 2, 4 ], [ 4, 2 ], [ 1, 5 ], [ 4, 5 ], [ 2, 1 ] ]
StrongOrbit( M, d, action )
StrongOrbit( M, d, action, grad )
The strong orbit of the point d in D under the action of M with respect to the grading grad is the set {d\^{m1} | m_{1} ∈ M, d\^{(}m_{1} m_{2}) = d for some m_{2} ∈ M}.
Note that the orbit of a point in general consists of several strong orbits.
In the first form StrongOrbit
determines the strong orbit of point d
under M with respect to the action action and the trivial grading.
In the second form StrongOrbit
determines the strong orbit of point d
under M with respect to the action action. Moreover, the grading
grad is used to facilitate the calculations. Note, however, that the
strong orbit of a point does not depend on the chosen grading.
gap> M:= Monoid( [ Transformation( [ 5, 4, 4, 2, 1 ] ), > Transformation( [ 2, 5, 5, 4, 1 ] ) ] ) ;; gap> Orbit( M, 3 ); [ 3, 4, 5, 2, 1 ] gap> StrongOrbit( M, 3, OnPoints ); [ 3 ]
Note that StrongOrbit
always requires the argument action specifying
how the monoid acts (see Other Actions).
GradedOrbit( M, d, action, grad )
The graded orbit of the point d in D under the action of M with
respect to the grading grad is the list [O_{1}, O_{2}, ... ]
of sets
O_{i} = {d\^{m} | m ∈ M, grad(d\^{m}) = i}. Thus the orbit of d
is simply the union of the sets O_{i}.
The function GradedOrbit
determines the graded orbit of point d under
M with respect to the grading grad and the action action.
gap> M:= Monoid( [ Transformation( [ 5, 4, 4, 2, 1 ] ), > Transformation( [ 2, 5, 5, 4, 1 ] ) ] ) ;; gap> Orbit( M, [ 1, 2, 3 ], OnSets ); [ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 4, 5 ], [ 2, 5 ], [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 1, 5 ], [ 2, 4 ] ] gap> GradedOrbit( M, [ 1, 2, 3 ], OnSets, Size ); [ [ ], [ [ 4, 5 ], [ 2, 5 ], [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 1, 5 ], [ 2, 4 ] ], [ [ 1, 2, 3 ] ] ]
Note that GradedOrbit
always requires the argument action specifying
how the monoid acts (see Other Actions).
ShortOrbit( M, d, action, grad )
The short orbit of the point d in D under the action of M with respect to the grading grad is the set {d\^{m} | m ∈ M, grad(d\^{m}) = grad(d)}.
The function ShortOrbit
determines the short orbit of the point d
under M with respect to the grading grad and the action action.
gap> M:= Monoid( [ Transformation( [ 5, 4, 4, 2, 1 ] ), > Transformation( [ 2, 5, 5, 4, 1 ] ) ] ) ;; gap> Orbit(M, [1, 2, 3], OnSets); [ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 4, 5 ], [ 2, 5 ], [ 1, 2 ], [ 1, 4 ], [ 1, 5 ], [ 2, 4 ] ] gap> ShortOrbit(M, [1, 2, 3], OnSets, Size); [ [ 1, 2, 3 ] ]
Note that ShortOrbit
always requires the argument action specifying
how the monoid acts (see Other Actions).
Action( M, D )
Action( M, D, action )
Action
returns a transformation monoid with the same number of
generators as M, such that each generator of the transformation monoid
acts on the set [1..Length(D)]
in the same way as the corresponding
generator of the monoid M acts on the domain D, which may be a list
of arbitrary type.
It is not allowed that D is a proper subset of a domain, i.e., D must be invariant under M.
Action
accepts a function action of two arguments d and m as
optional third argument, which specifies how the elements of M act on
D (see Other Actions).
Action
calls
M.operations.Action( M, D, action )
and returns the value. Note that the third argument is not optional for
functions called this way.
The default function called this way is MonoidOps.Action
, which simply
applies each generator of M to all the points of D, finds the
position of the image in D, and finally constructs the transformation
(see Transformation) defined by the list of those positions.
gap> M:= Monoid( [ Transformation( [ 5, 4, 4, 2, 2 ] ), > Transformation( [ 2, 5, 5, 4, 1 ] ) ] );; gap> Action(M, LClasses(M), OnLClasses); Monoid( [ Transformation( [2, 6, 9, 2, 2, 6, 13, 9, 6, 9, 7, 13, 12, 13, 14] ), Transformation( [5, 3, 4, 2, 5, 7, 8, 6, 10, 11, 9, 12, 14, 15, 13] ) ] )
ActionWithZero( M, D )
ActionWithZero( M, D, action )
ActionWithZero
returns a transformation monoid with the same number of
generators as M, such that each generator of the transformation monoid
acts on the set [1..Length(D)+1]
in the same way as the corresponding
generator of the monoid M acts on the domain <D> ∪ {0}, which
may be a list of arbitrary type.
Here it is not required that D be invariant under M. Whenever the
image of a point d under the monoid element m does not lie in D it
is set to 0. The image of 0 under every monoid element is set to
0. Note that this way the resulting monoid is a homomorphic image of
M if and only if D is a union of strong orbits. The point 0 is
represented by Length(D) + 1
in the domain of the transformation
monoid returned by ActionWithZero
.
ActionWithZero
accepts a function action of two arguments d and m
as optional third argument, which specifies how the elements of M act
on D (see Other Actions).
ActionWithZero
calls
M.operations.ActionWithZero( M, D, action )
and returns the value. Note that the third argument is not optional for
functions called this way.
The default function called this way is MonoidOps.ActionWithZero
, which
simply applies each generator of M to all the points of D, finds the
position of the image in D, and finally constructs the transformation
(see Transformation) defined by the list of those positions and
Length(D)+1
for every image not in D.
gap> M:= Monoid( [ Transformation( [ 5, 4, 4, 2, 2 ] ), > Transformation( [ 2, 5, 5, 4, 1 ] ) ] );; gap> M.name:= "M";; gap> class:= LClass( M, Transformation( [ 1, 4, 4, 5, 5 ] ) ); LClass( M, Transformation( [ 1, 4, 4, 5, 5 ] ) ) gap> orb:= ShortOrbit(M, class, OnLClasses, Rank); [ LClass( M, Transformation( [ 1, 4, 4, 5, 5 ] ) ), LClass( M, Transformation( [ 2, 4, 4, 1, 1 ] ) ), LClass( M, Transformation( [ 4, 2, 2, 5, 5 ] ) ) ] gap> ActionWithZero(M, orb, OnLClasses); Monoid( [ Transformation( [ 4, 3, 4, 4 ] ), Transformation( [ 2, 3, 1, 4 ] ) ] )
gap3-jm