This chapter introduces the data structures and functions for algebras
in **GAP3**. The word **algebra** in this manual means always **associative
algebra**.

At the moment **GAP3** supports only finitely presented algebras and
matrix algebras. For details about implementation and special functions for
the different types of algebras, see More about Algebras and the chapters
Finitely Presented Algebras and Matrix Algebras.

The treatment of algebras is very similar to that of groups. For
example, algebras in **GAP3** are always finitely generated, since for many
questions the generators play an important role.
If you are not familiar with the concepts that are used to handle groups
in **GAP3** it might be useful to read the introduction and the overview
sections in chapter Groups.

Algebras are created using `Algebra`

(see Algebra) or `UnitalAlgebra`

(see UnitalAlgebra), subalgebras of a given algebra using `Subalgebra`

(see Subalgebra) or `UnitalSubalgebra`

(see UnitalSubalgebra).
See Parent Algebras and Subalgebras, and the corresponding section
More about Groups and Subgroups in the chapter about groups for details
about the distinction between parent algebras and subalgebras.

The first sections of the chapter describe the data structures (see More about Algebras) and the concepts of unital algebras (see Algebras and Unital Algebras) and parent algebras (see Parent Algebras and Subalgebras).

The next sections describe the functions for the construction of algebras, and the tests for algebras (see Algebra, UnitalAlgebra, IsAlgebra, IsUnitalAlgebra, Subalgebra, UnitalSubalgebra, IsSubalgebra, AsAlgebra, AsUnitalAlgebra, AsSubalgebra, AsUnitalSubalgebra).

The next sections describe the different types of functions for algebras (see Operations for Algebras, Zero and One for Algebras, Set Theoretic Functions for Algebras, Property Tests for Algebras, Vector Space Functions for Algebras, Algebra Functions for Algebras, TrivialSubalgebra).

The next sections describe the operation of algebras (see Operation for Algebras, OperationHomomorphism for Algebras).

The next sections describe algebra homomorphisms (see Algebra Homomorphisms, Mapping Functions for Algebra Homomorphisms).

The next sections describe algebra elements (see Algebra Elements, IsAlgebraElement).

The last section describes the implementation of the data structures (see Algebra Records).

At the moment there is no implementation for ideals, cosets, and factors
of algebras in **GAP3**, and the only available algebra homomorphisms are
operation homomorphisms.

Also there is no implementation of bases for general algebras, this will be available as soon as it is for general vector spaces.

- More about Algebras
- Algebras and Unital Algebras
- Parent Algebras and Subalgebras
- Algebra
- UnitalAlgebra
- IsAlgebra
- IsUnitalAlgebra
- Subalgebra
- UnitalSubalgebra
- IsSubalgebra
- AsAlgebra
- AsUnitalAlgebra
- AsSubalgebra
- AsUnitalSubalgebra
- Operations for Algebras
- Zero and One for Algebras
- Set Theoretic Functions for Algebras
- Property Tests for Algebras
- Vector Space Functions for Algebras
- Algebra Functions for Algebras
- TrivialSubalgebra
- Operation for Algebras
- OperationHomomorphism for Algebras
- Algebra Homomorphisms
- Mapping Functions for Algebra Homomorphisms
- Algebra Elements
- IsAlgebraElement
- Algebra Records
- FFList

Let *F* be a field. A ring *A* is called an ** F-algebra** if

An algebra always contains a **zero element** that can be obtained by
subtracting an arbitrary element from itself. A discussion of **identity
elements** of algebras (and of the consequences for the implementation in
**GAP3**) can be found in Algebras and Unital Algebras.

**Elements of the field** *F* are not regarded as elements of *A*. The
practical reason (besides the obvious mathematical one) for this is that
even if the identity matrix is contained in the matrix algebra *A* it is
not possible to write `1 + a`

for adding the identity matrix to the
algebra element `a`

, since independent of the algebra *A* the meaning in
**GAP3** is already defined as to add `1`

to all positions of the matrix
`a`

. Thus one has to write `One( A ) + a`

or `a^0 + a`

instead.

The natural **operation domains** for algebras are modules
(see Operation for Algebras, and chapter Modules).

Not all algebras contain a (left and right) multiplicative neutral
**identity element**, but if an algebra contains such an identity element
it is unique.

If an algebra *A* contains a multiplicative neutral element then in
general it cannot be derived from an arbitrary element *a* of *A* by
forming *a / a* or *a ^{0}*, since these operations may be not defined for
the algebra

More precisely, it may be possible to invert *a* or raise it to the
zero-th power, but *A* is not necessarily closed under these operations.
For example, if *a* is a square matrix in **GAP3** then we can form *a ^{0}*
which is the identity matrix of the same size and over the same field as

On the other hand, an algebra may have a multiplicative neutral element
that is **not** equal to the zero-th power of elements (see Zero and One
for Algebras).

In many cases, however, the zero-th power of algebra elements is well-defined, with the result again in the algebra. This holds for example for all finitely presented algebras (see chapter Finitely Presented Algebras) and all those matrix algebras whose generators are the generators of a finite group.

For practical purposes it is useful to distinguish general **algebras** and
**unital algebras**.

A unital algebra in **GAP3** is an algebra *U* that is **known to contain**
zero-th powers of elements, and all functions may assume this. A not unital
algebra *A* may contain zero-th powers of elements or not, and no
function for *A* should assume existence or nonexistence of these
elements in *A*. So it may be possible to view *A* as a unital algebra
using `AsUnitalAlgebra( `

(see AsUnitalAlgebra), and of course it
is always possible to view a unital algebra as algebra using
`A` )`AsAlgebra( `

(see AsAlgebra).
`U` )

*A* can have unital subalgebras, and of course *U* can have subalgebras
that are not unital.

The images of unital algebras under operation homomorphisms are either unital or trivial, since the identity of the source acts trivially, so its image under the homomorphism is the identity of the image.

The following example shows the main differences between algebras and unital algebras.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ];; gap> alg1:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a ] ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> id:= a^0; [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] gap> id in alg1; false gap> alg2:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ a ] ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> id in alg2; true gap> alg3:= AsAlgebra( alg2 ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ], [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ] ) gap> alg3 = alg2; true gap> AsUnitalAlgebra( alg1 ); Error, <D> is not unital

We see that if we want the identity matrix to be contained in an algebra
that is not known to be unital, it might be necessary to add it to the
generators. If we would not have the possibility to define unital
algebras, this would lead to the strange situations that a two-generator
algebra means an algebra generated by one nonidentity generator and the
identity matrix, or that an algebra is free on the set *X* but is
generated as algebra by the set *X* plus the identity.

**GAP3** distinguishs between parent algebras and subalgebras of parent
algebras. The concept is the same as that for groups (see More about
Groups and Subgroups), so here it is only sketched.

Each subalgebra belongs to a unique parent algebra, the so-called
**parent** of the subalgebra. A parent algebra is its own parent.

Parent algebras are constructed by `Algebra`

and `UnitalAlgebra`

,
subalgebras are constructed by `Subalgebra`

and `UnitalSubalgebra`

.
The parent of the first argument of `Subalgebra`

will be the parent of the
constructed subalgebra.

Those algebra functions that take more than one algebra as argument
require that the arguments have a common parent. Take for instance
`Centralizer`

. It takes two arguments, an algebra `A` and an algebra
`B`, where either `A` is a parent algebra, and `B` is a subalgebra of
this parent algebra, or `A` and `B` are subalgebras of a common parent
algebra `P`, and returns the centralizer of `B` in `A`. This is
represented as a subalgebra of the common parent of `A` and `B`.
Note that a subalgebra of a parent algebra need not be a proper
subalgebra.

An exception to this rule is again the set theoretic function
`Intersection`

(see Intersection), which allows to intersect algebras
with different parents.

Whenever you have two subalgebras which have different parent algebras
but have a common superalgebra `A` you can use `AsSubalgebra`

or
`AsUnitalSubalgebra`

(see AsSubalgebra, AsUnitalSubalgebra) in order
to construct new subalgebras which have a common parent algebra `A`.

Note that subalgebras of unital algebras need not be unital (see Algebras and Unital Algebras).

The following sections describe the functions related to this concept (see Algebra, UnitalAlgebra, IsAlgebra, IsUnitalAlgebra, AsAlgebra, AsUnitalAlgebra, Subalgebra, UnitalSubalgebra, AsSubalgebra, AsUnitalSubalgebra, and also IsParent, Parent).

`Algebra( `

`U` )

returns a parent algebra *A* which is isomorphic to the parent algebra or
subalgebra `U`.

`Algebra( `

`F`, `gens` )

`Algebra( `

`F`, `gens`, `zero` )

returns a parent algebra over the field `F` and generated by the algebra
elements in the list `gens`. The zero element of this algebra may be
entered as `zero`; this is necessary whenever `gens` is empty.

gap> a:= [ [ 1 ] ];; gap> alg:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a ] ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1 ] ] ] ) gap> alg.name:= "alg";; gap> sub:= Subalgebra( alg, [] ); Subalgebra( alg, [ ] ) gap> Algebra( sub ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 0 ] ] ] ) gap> Algebra( Rationals, [], 0*a ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 0 ] ] ] )

The algebras returned by `Algebra`

are not unital. For constructing
unital algebras, use UnitalAlgebra `UnitalAlgebra`

.

`UnitalAlgebra( `

`U` )

returns a unital parent algebra *A* which is isomorphic to the parent
algebra or subalgebra `U`. If `U` is not unital it is checked whether
the zero-th power of elements is contained in `U`, and if not an error
is signalled.

`UnitalAlgebra( `

`F`, `gens` )

`UnitalAlgebra( `

`F`, `gens`, `zero` )

returns a unital parent algebra over the field `F` and generated by the
algebra elements in the list `gens`. The zero element of this algebra
may be entered as `zero`; this is necessary whenever `gens` is empty.

gap> alg1:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ NullMat( 2, 2 ) ] ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> alg2:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [], NullMat( 2, 2 ) ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> alg3:= Algebra( alg1 ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ], [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ] ) gap> alg1 = alg3; true gap> AsUnitalAlgebra( alg3 ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ], [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ] )

The algebras returned by `UnitalAlgebra`

are unital. For constructing
algebras that are not unital, use Algebra `Algebra`

.

`IsAlgebra( `

`obj` )

returns `true`

if `obj`, which can be an object of arbitrary type, is
a parent algebra or a subalgebra and `false`

otherwise.
The function will signal an error if `obj` is an unbound variable.

gap> IsAlgebra( FreeAlgebra( GF(2), 0 ) ); true gap> IsAlgebra( 1/2 ); false

`IsUnitalAlgebra( `

`obj` )

returns `true`

if `obj`, which can be an object of arbitrary type, is
a unital parent algebra or a unital subalgebra and `false`

otherwise.
The function will signal an error if `obj` is an unbound variable.

gap> IsUnitalAlgebra( FreeAlgebra( GF(2), 0 ) ); true gap> IsUnitalAlgebra( Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1 ] ] ] ) ); false

Note that the function does **not** check whether `obj` is an algebra that
contains the zero-th power of elements, but just checks whether `obj` is
an algebra with flag `isUnitalAlgebra`

.

`Subalgebra( `

`A`, `gens` )

returns the subalgebra of the algebra `A` generated by the elements in
the list `gens`.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ];; gap> b:= [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ;; gap> alg:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a, b ] );; gap> alg.name:= "alg";; gap> s:= Subalgebra( alg, [ a ] ); Subalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> s = alg; false gap> s:= UnitalSubalgebra( alg, [ a ] ); UnitalSubalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> s = alg; true

Note that `Subalgebra`

, `UnitalSubalgebra`

, `AsSubalgebra`

and
`AsUnitalSubalgebra`

are the only functions in which the name
`Subalgebra`

does not refer to the mathematical terms subalgebra and
superalgebra but to the implementation of algebras as subalgebras and
parent algebras.

`UnitalSubalgebra( `

`A`, `gens` )

returns the unital subalgebra of the algebra `A` generated by the
elements in the list `gens`.
If `A` is not (known to be) unital then first it is checked that `A`
really contains the zero-th power of elements.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ];; gap> b:= [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ;; gap> alg:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a, b ] );; gap> alg.name:= "alg";; gap> s:= Subalgebra( alg, [ a ] ); Subalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> s = alg; false gap> s:= UnitalSubalgebra( alg, [ a ] ); UnitalSubalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> s = alg; true

Note that `Subalgebra`

, `UnitalSubalgebra`

, `AsSubalgebra`

and
`AsUnitalSubalgebra`

are the only functions in which the name
`Subalgebra`

does not refer to the mathematical terms subalgebra and
superalgebra but to the implementation of algebras as subalgebras and
parent algebras.

`IsSubalgebra( `

`A`, `U` )

returns `true`

if `U` is a subalgebra of `A` and `false`

otherwise.

Note that `A` and `U` must have a common parent algebra. This function
returns `true`

if and only if the set of elements of `U` is a subset of
the set of elements of `A`.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ];; gap> b:= [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ;; gap> alg:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a, b ] );; gap> alg.name:= "alg";; gap> IsSubalgebra( alg, alg ); true gap> s:= UnitalSubalgebra( alg, [ a ] ); UnitalSubalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> IsSubalgebra( alg, s ); true

`AsAlgebra( `

`D` )

`AsAlgebra( `

`F`, `D` )

Let `D` be a domain. `AsAlgebra`

returns an algebra *A* over the field `F`
such that the set of elements of `D` is the same as the set of elements of
*A* if this is possible.
If `D` is an algebra the argument `F` may be omitted, the coefficients
field of `D` is taken as coefficients field of `F` in this case.

If `D` is a list of algebra elements these elements must form a algebra.
Otherwise an error is signalled.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] * Z(2);; gap> AsAlgebra( GF(2), [ a, 0*a ] ); Algebra( GF(2), [ [ [ Z(2)^0, 0*Z(2) ], [ 0*Z(2), 0*Z(2) ] ] ] )

Note that this function returns a parent algebra or a subalgebra of a
parent algebra depending on `D`. In order to convert a subalgebra
into a parent algebra you must use `Algebra`

or `UnitalAlgebra`

(see
Algebra, UnitalAlgebra).

`AsUnitalAlgebra( `

`D` )

`AsUnitalAlgebra( `

`F`, `D` )

Let `D` be a domain. `AsUnitalAlgebra`

returns a unital algebra *A* over
the field `F` such that the set of elements of `D` is the same as the set
of elements of *A* if this is possible.
If `D` is an algebra the argument `F` may be omitted, the coefficients
field of `D` is taken as coefficients field of `F` in this case.

If `D` is a list of algebra elements these elements must form a unital
algebra. Otherwise an error is signalled.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] * Z(2);; gap> AsUnitalAlgebra( GF(2), [ a, a^0, 0*a, a^0-a ] ); UnitalAlgebra( GF(2), [ [ [ 0*Z(2), 0*Z(2) ], [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ] ], [ [ Z(2)^0, 0*Z(2) ], [ 0*Z(2), 0*Z(2) ] ] ] )

Note that this function returns a parent algebra or a subalgebra of a
parent algebra depending on `D`. In order to convert a subalgebra
into a parent algebra you must use `Algebra`

or `UnitalAlgebra`

(see
Algebra, UnitalAlgebra).

`AsSubalgebra( `

`A`, `U` )

Let `A` be a parent algebra and `U` be a parent algebra or a subalgebra
with a possibly different parent algebra, such that the generators of `U`
are elements of `A`. `AsSubalgebra`

returns a new subalgebra *S* such
that *S* has parent algebra `A` and is generated by the generators of `U`.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ];; gap> b:= [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ;; gap> alg:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a, b ] );; gap> alg.name:= "alg";; gap> s:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a ] ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> AsSubalgebra( alg, s ); Subalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] )

Note that `Subalgebra`

, `UnitalSubalgebra`

, `AsSubalgebra`

and
`AsUnitalSubalgebra`

are the only functions in which the name
`Subalgebra`

does not refer to the mathematical terms subalgebra and
superalgebra but to the implementation of algebras as subalgebras and
parent algebras.

`AsUnitalSubalgebra( `

`A`, `U` )

Let `A` be a parent algebra and `U` be a parent algebra or a subalgebra
with a possibly different parent algebra, such that the generators of `U`
are elements of `A`. `AsSubalgebra`

returns a new unital subalgebra *S*
such that *S* has parent algebra `A` and is generated by the generators
of `U`. If `U` or `A` do not contain the zero-th power of elements an
error is signalled.

gap> a:= [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ];; gap> b:= [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ];; gap> alg:= Algebra( Rationals, [ a, b ] );; gap> alg.name:= "alg";; gap> s:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ a ] ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> AsSubalgebra( alg, s ); Subalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ], [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ] ) gap> AsUnitalSubalgebra( alg, s ); UnitalSubalgebra( alg, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] )

`Subalgebra`

, `UnitalSubalgebra`

, `AsSubalgebra`

and
`AsUnitalSubalgebra`

are the only functions in which the name
`Subalgebra`

does not refer to the mathematical terms subalgebra and
superalgebra but to the implementation of algebras as subalgebras and
parent algebras.

`A` ^ `n`

The operator `^`

evaluates to the `n`-fold direct product of `A`,
viewed as a free `A`-module.

gap> a:= FreeAlgebra( GF(2), 2 ); UnitalAlgebra( GF(2), [ a.1, a.2 ] ) gap> a^2; Module( UnitalAlgebra( GF(2), [ a.1, a.2 ] ), [ [ a.one, a.zero ], [ a.zero, a.one ] ] )

`a` in `A`

The operator `in`

evaluates to `true`

if `a` is an element of `A` and
`false`

otherwise. `a` must be an element of the parent algebra of `A`.

gap> a.1^3 + a.2 in a; true gap> 1 in a; false

`Zero(`

:`A`)-

returns the additive neutral element of the algebra`A`.

`One(`

:`A`)-

returns the (right and left) multiplicative neutral element of the algebra`A`if this exists, and`false`

otherwise. If`A`is a unital algebra then this element is obtained on raising an arbitrary element to the zero-th power (see Algebras and Unital Algebras).

gap> a:= Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ); Algebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> Zero( a ); [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] gap> One( a ); [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] gap> a:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> Zero( a ); [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] gap> One( a ); [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ]

As already mentioned in the introduction of the chapter, algebras are
domains. Thus all set theoretic functions, for example `Intersection`

and `Size`

can be applied to algebras.
All set theoretic functions not mentioned here are not treated specially
for algebras.

`Elements(`

:`A`)-

computes the elements of the algebra`A`using a Dimino algorithm. The default function for algebras computes a vector space basis at the same time.

`Intersection(`

:`A`,`H`)-

returns the intersection of`A`and`H`either as set of elements or as an algebra record.

`IsSubset(`

:`A`,`H`)-

If`A`and`H`are algebras then`IsSubset`

tests whether the generators of`H`are elements of`A`. Otherwise`DomainOps.IsSubset`

is used.

`Random(`

:`A`)-

returns a random element of the algebra`A`. This requires the computation of a vector space basis.

See also Functions for Matrix Algebras, Functions for Finitely Presented Algebras for the set theoretic functions for the different types of algebras.

The following property tests (cf. Properties and Property Tests) are available for algebras.

`IsAbelian(`

:`A`)-

returns`true`

if the algebra`A`is abelian and`false`

otherwise. An algebra`A`is**abelian**if and only if for every*a, b∈*the equation`A`*a* b = b* a*holds.

`IsCentral(`

:`A`,`U`)-

returns`true`

if the algebra`A`centralizes the algebra`U`and`false`

otherwise. An algebra`A`**centralizes**an algebra`U`if and only if for all*a∈*and for all`A`*u∈*the equation`U`*a* u = u* a*holds. Note that`U`need not to be a subalgebra of`A`but they must have a common parent algebra.

`IsFinite(`

:`A`)-

returns`true`

if the algebra`A`is finite, and`false`

otherwise.

`IsTrivial(`

:`A`)-

returns`true`

if the algebra`A`consists only of the zero element, and`false`

otherwise. If`A`is a unital algebra it is of course never trivial.

All tests expect a parent algebra or subalgebra and return `true`

if the
algebra has the property and `false`

otherwise. Some functions may not
terminate if the given algebra has an infinite set of elements.
A warning may be printed in such cases.

gap> IsAbelian( FreeAlgebra( GF(2), 2 ) ); false gap> a:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> a.name:= "a";; gap> s1:= Subalgebra( a, [ One(a) ] ); Subalgebra( a, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ] ) gap> IsCentral( a, s1 ); IsFinite( s1 ); true false gap> s2:= Subalgebra( a, [] ); Subalgebra( a, [ ] ) gap> IsFinite( s2 ); IsTrivial( s2 ); true true

A finite dimensional *F*-algebra *A* is always a finite dimensional
*F*-vector space.
Thus in **GAP3**, an algebra is a vector space (see IsVectorSpace),
and vector space functions such as `Base`

and `Dimension`

are applicable
to algebras.

gap> a:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ) gap> Dimension( a ); 2 gap> Base( a ); [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ], [ [ 0, 0 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] ]

The vector space structure is used also by the set theoretic functions.

The functions desribed in this section compute certain subalgebras
of a given algebra, e.g., `Centre`

computes the centre of an algebra.

They return algebra records as described in Algebra Records for the computed subalgebras. Some functions may not terminate if the given algebra has an infinite set of elements, while other functions may signal an error in such cases.

Here the term ``subalgebra'' is used in a mathematical sense. But in
**GAP3**, every algebra is either a parent algebra or a subalgebra of a
unique parent algebra. If you compute the centre *C* of an algebra *U*
with parent algebra *A* then *C* is a subalgebra of *U* but its parent
algebra is *A* (see Parent Algebras and Subalgebras).

`Centralizer( `

`A`, `x` )

`Centralizer(`

:`A`,`U`)-

returns the centralizer of an element`x`in`A`where`x`must be an element of the parent algebra of`A`, resp. the centralizer of the algebra`U`in`A`where both algebras must have a common parent.

The **centralizer** of an element `x` in `A` is defined as the set *C* of
elements *c* of `A` such that `c` and `x` commute.

The **centralizer** of an algebra `U` in `A` is defined as the set *C* of
elements *c* of *A* such that *c* commutes with every element of `U`.

gap> a:= MatAlgebra( GF(2), 2 );; gap> a.name:= "a";; gap> m:= [ [ 1, 1 ], [ 0, 1 ] ] * Z(2);; gap> Centralizer( a, m ); UnitalSubalgebra( a, [ [ [ Z(2)^0, 0*Z(2) ], [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ] ], [ [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ], [ 0*Z(2), 0*Z(2) ] ] ] )

`Centre(`

:`A`)-

returns the centre of`A`(that is, the centralizer of`A`in`A`).

gap> c:= Centre( a ); UnitalSubalgebra( a, [ [ [ Z(2)^0, 0*Z(2) ], [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ] ] ] )

`Closure( `

`U`, `a` )

`Closure( `

`U`, `S` )

Let `U` be an algebra with parent algebra *A* and let `a` be an element
of *A*. Then `Closure`

returns the closure *C* of `U` and `a` as
subalgebra of *A*. The closure *C* of `U` and `a` is the subalgebra
generated by `U` and `a`.

Let `U` and `S` be two algebras with a common parent algebra *A*. Then
`Closure`

returns the subalgebra of *A* generated by `U` and `S`.

gap> Closure( c, m ); UnitalSubalgebra( a, [ [ [ Z(2)^0, 0*Z(2) ], [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ] ], [ [ Z(2)^0, Z(2)^0 ], [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ] ] ] )

`TrivialSubalgebra( `

`U` )

Let `U` be an algebra with parent algebra *A*. Then `TrivialSubalgebra`

returns the trivial subalgebra *T* of `U`, as subalgebra of *A*.

gap> a:= MatAlgebra( GF(2), 2 );; gap> a.name:= "a";; gap> TrivialSubalgebra( a ); Subalgebra( a, [ ] )

`Operation( `

`A`, `M` )

Let *A* be an *F*-algebra for a field *F*, and *M* an *A*-module of
*F*-dimension *n*. With respect to a chosen *F*-basis of *M*, the action
of an element of *A* on *M* can be described by an *n × n* matrix
over *F*. This induces an algebra homomorphism from *A* onto a matrix
algebra *A _{M}*, with action on its natural module equivalent to the action
of

`Operation( ``A`, `M` )

.

`Operation( `

`A`, `B` )

returns the operation of the algebra `A` on an `A`-module *M* with respect
to the vector space basis `B` of *M*.

Note that contrary to the situation for groups, the operation domains of algebras are not lists of elements but domains.

For constructing the algebra homomorphism from *A* onto *A _{M}*, and the
module homomorphism from

gap> a:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] );; gap> m:= Module( a, [ [ 1, 0 ] ] );; gap> op:= Operation( a, m ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1 ] ] ] ) gap> mat1:= PermutationMat( (1,2,3), 3, GF(2) );; gap> mat2:= PermutationMat( (1,2), 3, GF(2) );; gap> u:= Algebra( GF(2), [ mat1, mat2 ] );; u.name:= "u";; gap> nat:= NaturalModule( u );; nat.name:= "nat";; gap> q:= nat / FixedSubmodule( nat );; gap> op1:= Operation( u, q ); UnitalAlgebra( GF(2), [ [ [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ], [ Z(2)^0, Z(2)^0 ] ], [ [ Z(2)^0, Z(2)^0 ], [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ] ] ] ) gap> b:= Basis( q, [ [ 0, 1, 1 ], [ 0, 0, 1 ] ] * Z(2) );; gap> op2:= Operation( u, b ); UnitalAlgebra( GF(2), [ [ [ Z(2)^0, Z(2)^0 ], [ Z(2)^0, 0*Z(2) ] ], [ [ Z(2)^0, Z(2)^0 ], [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0 ] ] ] ) gap> IsEquivalent( NaturalModule( op1 ), NaturalModule( op2 ) ); true

If the dimension of *M* is zero then the elements of *A _{M}* cannot be
represented as

`NullAlgebra`

.
`OperationHomomorphism( `

`A`, `B` )

returns the algebra homomorphism (see Algebra Homomorphisms) with
source `A` and range `B`, provided that `B` is a matrix algebra that was
constructed as operation of `A` on a suitable module `M` using
`Operation( `

, see Operation for Algebras.
`A`, `M` )

gap> ophom:= OperationHomomorphism( a, op ); OperationHomomorphism( UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] ), UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1 ] ] ] ) ) gap> Image( ophom, a.1 ); [ [ 1 ] ] gap> Image( ophom, Zero( a ) ); [ [ 0 ] ] gap> PreImagesRepresentative( ophom, [ [ 2 ] ] ); [ [ 2, 0 ], [ 0, 2 ] ]

An **algebra homomorphism** *φ* is a mapping that maps each element of an
algebra *A*, called the source of *φ*, to an element of an algebra *B*,
called the range of *φ*, such that for each pair *x, y ∈ A* we have
*(xy) ^{φ} = x^{φ} y^{φ}* and

An algebra homomorphism of unital algebras is **unital** if the zero-th
power of elements in the source is mapped to the zero-th power of elements
in the range.

At the moment, only operation homomorphisms are supported in **GAP3** (see
OperationHomomorphism for Algebras).

This section describes how the mapping functions defined in chapter Mappings are implemented for algebra homomorphisms. Those functions not mentioned here are implemented by the default functions described in the respective sections.

`Image( `

`hom` )

`Image( `

`hom`, `H` )

`Images( `

`hom`, `H` )

The image of a subalgebra under a algebra homomorphism is computed by computing the images of a set of generators of the subalgebra, and the result is the subalgebra generated by those images.

`PreImagesRepresentative( `

`hom`, `elm` )

gap> a:= UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1, 0 ], [ 0, 0 ] ] ] );; gap> a.name:= "a";; gap> m:= Module( a, [ [ 1, 0 ] ] );; gap> op:= Operation( a, m ); UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1 ] ] ] ) gap> ophom:= OperationHomomorphism( a, op ); OperationHomomorphism( a, UnitalAlgebra( Rationals, [ [ [ 1 ] ] ] ) ) gap> Image( ophom, a.1 ); [ [ 1 ] ] gap> Image( ophom, Zero( a ) ); [ [ 0 ] ] gap> PreImagesRepresentative( ophom, [ [ 2 ] ] ); [ [ 2, 0 ], [ 0, 2 ] ]

This section describes the operations and functions available for algebra elements.

Note that algebra elements may exist independently of an algebra, e.g., you can write down two matrices and compute their sum and product without ever defining an algebra that contains them.

**Comparisons of Algebra Elements**

:`g`=`h`-

evaluates to`true`

if the algebra elements`g`and`h`are equal and to`false`

otherwise.

:`g`<>`h`-

evaluates to`true`

if the algebra elements`g`and`h`are not equal and to`false`

otherwise.

`g` < `h`

`g` <= `h`

`g` >= `h`

`g` > `h`

The operators `<`

, `<=`

, `>=`

and `>`

evaluate to `true`

if the algebra
element `g` is strictly less than, less than or equal to, greater than or
equal to and strictly greater than the algebra element `h`. There is no
general ordering on all algebra elements, so `g` and `h` should lie in
the same parent algebra. Note that for elements of finitely presented
algebra, comparison means comparison with respect to the underlying free
algebra (see Elements of Finitely Presented Algebras).

**Arithmetic Operations for Algebra Elements**

`a` * `b`

`a` + `b`

`a` - `b`

The operators `*`

, `+`

and `-`

evaluate to the product, sum and difference
of the two algebra elements `a` and `b`. The operands must of course
lie in a common parent algebra, otherwise an error is signalled.

`a` / `c`

returns the quotient of the algebra element `a` by the nonzero element `c`
of the base field of the algebra.

`a` ^ `i`

returns the `i`-th power of an algebra element `a` and a positive integer
`i`. If `i` is zero or negative, perhaps the result is not defined, or
not contained in the algebra generated by `a`.

`list` + `a`

`a` + `list`

`list` * `a`

`a` * `list`

In this form the operators `+`

and `*`

return a new list where each entry
is the sum resp. product of `a` and the corresponding entry of `list`.
Of course addition resp. multiplication must be defined between `a` and
each entry of `list`.

`IsAlgebraElement( `

`obj` )

returns `true`

if `obj`, which may be an object of
arbitrary type, is an algebra element, and `false`

otherwise. The function
will signal an error if `obj` is an unbound variable.

gap> IsAlgebraElement( (1,2) ); false gap> IsAlgebraElement( NullMat( 2, 2 ) ); true gap> IsAlgebraElement( FreeAlgebra( Rationals, 1 ).1 ); true

Algebras and their subalgebras are represented by records.
Once an algebra record is created you may add record components to it but
you must **not** alter information already present.

Algebra records must always contain the components `isDomain`

and
`isAlgebra`

. Subalgebras contain an additional component `parent`

.
The components `generators`

, `zero`

and `one`

are not necessarily
contained.

The contents of important record components of an algebra *A* is
described below.

The **category components** are

`isDomain`

:-

is`true`

.

`isAlgebra`

:-

is`true`

.

`isUnitalAlgebra`

:-

is present (and then`true`

) if*A*is a unital algebra.

The **identification components** are

`field`

:-

is the coefficient field of*A*.

`generators`

:-

is a list of algebra generators. Duplicate generators are allowed, also the algebra zero may be among the generators. Note that once created this entry must never be changed, as most of the other entries depend on`generators`

. If`generators`

is not bound it can be computed using`Generators`

.

`parent`

:-

if present this contains the algebra record of the parent algebra of a subalgebra*A*, otherwise*A*itself is a parent algebra.

`zero`

:-

is the additive neutral element of*A*, can be computed using`Zero`

.

The component `operations`

contains the **operations record** of *A*.
This will usually be one of `AlgebraOps`

, `UnitalAlgebraOps`

, or a
record for more specific algebras.

`FFList( `

`F` )

returns for a finite field `F` a list `l` of all elements of `F` in an
ordering that is compatible with the ordering of field elements in the
**MeatAxe** share library (see chapter The MeatAxe).

The element of `F` corresponding to the number `n` is

,
and the canonical number of the field element `l`[ `n`+1 ]`z` is
`Position( `

.
`l`, `z` ) -1

gap> FFList( GF( 8 ) ); [ 0*Z(2), Z(2)^0, Z(2^3), Z(2^3)^3, Z(2^3)^2, Z(2^3)^6, Z(2^3)^4, Z(2^3)^5 ]

(This program was originally written by Meinolf Geck.)

gap3-jm

19 Feb 2018