A **mapping** is an object that maps each element of its source to a value
in its range.

Precisely, a mapping is a triple. The **source** is a set of objects. The
**range** is another set of objects. The **relation** is a subset *S* of the
cartesian product of the source with the range, such that for each
element *elm* of the source there is exactly one element *img* of the
range, so that the pair *(elm,img)* lies in *S*. This *img* is called
the image of *elm* under the mapping, and we say that the mapping maps
*elm* to *img*.

A **multi valued mapping** is an object that maps each element of its
source to a set of values in its range.

Precisely, a multi valued mapping is a triple. The **source** is a set of
objects. The **range** is another set of objects. The **relation** is a
subset *S* of the cartesian product of the source with the range. For
each element *elm* of the source the set *img* such that the pair
*(elm,img)* lies in *S* is called the set of **images** of *elm* under the
mapping, and we say that the mapping maps *elm* to this set.

Thus a mapping is a special case of a multi valued mapping where the set of images of each element of the source contains exactly one element, which is then called the image of the element under the mapping.

Mappings are created by **mapping constructors** such as
`MappingByFunction`

(see MappingByFunction) or `NaturalHomomorphism`

(see NaturalHomomorphism).

This chapter contains sections that describe the functions that test whether an object is a mapping (see IsGeneralMapping), whether a mapping is single valued (see IsMapping), and the various functions that test if such a mapping has a certain property (see IsInjective, IsSurjective, IsBijection, IsHomomorphism, IsMonomorphism, IsEpimorphism, IsIsomorphism, IsEpimorphism, and IsAutomorphism).

Next this chapter contains functions that describe how mappings are compared (see Comparisons of Mappings) and the operations that are applicable to mappings (see Operations for Mappings).

Next this chapter contains sections that describe the functions that deal with the images and preimages of elements under mappings (see Image, Images, ImagesRepresentative, PreImage, PreImages, and PreImagesRepresentative).

Next this chapter contains sections that describe the functions that compute the composition of two mappings, the power of a mapping, the inverse of a mapping, and the identity mapping on a certain domain (see CompositionMapping, PowerMapping, InverseMapping, and IdentityMapping).

Finally this chapter also contains a section that describes how mappings are represented internally (see Mapping Records).

The functions described in this chapter are in the file

.
`libname`/"mapping.g"

- IsGeneralMapping
- IsMapping
- IsInjective
- IsSurjective
- IsBijection
- Comparisons of Mappings
- Operations for Mappings
- Image
- Images
- ImagesRepresentative
- PreImage
- PreImages
- PreImagesRepresentative
- CompositionMapping
- PowerMapping
- InverseMapping
- IdentityMapping
- MappingByFunction
- Mapping Records

`IsGeneralMapping( `

`obj` )

`IsGeneralMapping`

returns `true`

if the object `obj` is a mapping
(possibly multi valued) and `false`

otherwise.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> IsGeneralMapping( p4 ); true gap> IsGeneralMapping( InverseMapping( p4 ) ); true # note that the inverse mapping is multi valued gap> IsGeneralMapping( x -> x^4 ); false # a function is not a mapping

See MappingByFunction for the definition of `MappingByFunction`

and
InverseMapping for `InverseMapping`

.

`IsMapping( `

`map` )

`IsMapping`

returns `true`

if the general mapping `map` is single valued
and `false`

otherwise. Signals an error if `map` is not a general
mapping.

```
gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";;
gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end )
gap> IsMapping( p4 );
true
gap> IsMapping( InverseMapping( p4 ) );
false # note that the inverse mapping is multi valued
gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 5;
end )
gap> IsMapping( p5 );
true
gap> IsMapping( InverseMapping( p5 ) );
true #
````p5`

is a bijection

`IsMapping`

first tests if the flag

is bound. If the
flag is bound, it returns its value. Otherwise it calls
`map`.isMapping

, remembers the returned value in
`map`.operations.IsMapping( `map` )

, and returns it.
`map`.isMapping

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.IsMapping`

, which
computes the sets of images of all the elements in the source of `map`,
provided this is finite, and returns `true`

if all those sets have size
one. Look in the index under **IsMapping** to see for which mappings this
function is overlaid.

`IsInjective( `

`map` )

`IsInjective`

returns `true`

if the mapping `map` is injective and
`false`

otherwise. Signals an error if `map` is a multi valued mapping.

A mapping *map* is **injective** if for each element *img* of the range
there is at most one element *elm* of the source that *map* maps to
*img*.

```
gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";;
gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end )
gap> IsInjective( p4 );
false
gap> IsInjective( InverseMapping( p4 ) );
Error, <map> must be a single valued mapping
gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 5;
end )
gap> IsInjective( p5 );
true
gap> IsInjective( InverseMapping( p5 ) );
true #
````p5`

is a bijection

`IsInjective`

first tests if the flag

is bound. If
the flag is bound, it returns this value. Otherwise it calls
`map`.isInjective

, remembers the returned value in
`map`.operations.isInjective( `map` )

, and returns it.
`map`.isInjective

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.IsInjective`

, which
compares the sizes of the source and image of `map`, and returns `true`

if they are equal (see Image). Look in the index under **IsInjective**
to see for which mappings this function is overlaid.

`IsSurjective( `

`map` )

`IsSurjective`

returns `true`

if the mapping `map` is surjective and
`false`

otherwise. Signals an error if `map` is a multi valued mapping.

A mapping *map* is **surjective** if for each element *img* of the range
there is at least one element *elm* of the source that *map* maps to
*img*.

```
gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";;
gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end )
gap> IsSurjective( p4 );
false
gap> IsSurjective( InverseMapping( p4 ) );
Error, <map> must be a single valued mapping
gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 5;
end )
gap> IsSurjective( p5 );
true
gap> IsSurjective( InverseMapping( p5 ) );
true #
````p5`

is a bijection

`IsSurjective`

first tests if the flag

is bound. If
the flag is bound, it returns this value. Otherwise it calls
`map`.isSurjective

, remembers the returned value in
`map`.operations.IsSurjective( `map` )

, and returns it.
`map`.isSurjective

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.IsSurjective`

, which
compares the sizes of the range and image of `map`, and returns `true`

if
they are equal (see Image). Look in the index under **IsSurjective** to
see for which mappings this function is overlaid.

`IsBijection( `

`map` )

`IsBijection`

returns `true`

if the mapping `map` is a bijection and
`false`

otherwise. Signals an error if `map` is a multi valued mapping.

A mapping *map* is a **bijection** if for each element *img* of the range
there is exactly one element *elm* of the source that *map* maps to
*img*. We also say that *map* is **bijective**.

```
gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";;
gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end )
gap> IsBijection( p4 );
false
gap> IsBijection( InverseMapping( p4 ) );
Error, <map> must be a single valued mapping
gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 5;
end )
gap> IsBijection( p5 );
true
gap> IsBijection( InverseMapping( p5 ) );
true #
````p5`

is a bijection

`IsBijection`

first tests if the flag

is bound. If
the flag is bound, it returns its value. Otherwise it calls
`map`.isBijection

, remembers the returned value in
`map`.operations.IsBijection( `map` )

, and returns it.
`map`.isBijection

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.IsBijection`

, which
calls `IsInjective`

and `IsSurjective`

, and returns the logical **and** of
the results. This function is seldom overlaid, because all the
interesting work is done by `IsInjective`

and `IsSurjective`

.

`map1` = `map2`

`map1` <> `map2`

The equality operator `=`

applied to two mappings `map1` and `map2`
evaluates to `true`

if the two mappings are equal and to `false`

otherwise. The unequality operator `<>`

applied to two mappings `map1`
and `map2` evaluates to `true`

if the two mappings are not equal and to
`false`

otherwise. A mapping can also be compared with another object
that is not a mapping, of course they are never equal.

Two mappings are considered equal if and only if their sources are equal,
their ranges are equal, and for each elment `elm` of the source ```
Images(
```

is equal to `map1`, `elm` )`Images( `

(see Images).
`map2`, `elm` )

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> p13 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^13 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 13; end ) gap> p4 = p13; false gap> p13 = IdentityMapping( g ); true

`map1` < `map2`

`map1` <= `map2`

`map1` > `map2`

`map1` >= `map2`

The operators `<`

, `<=`

, `>`

, and `>=`

applied to two mappings
evaluates to `true`

if `map1` is less than, less than or equal to,
greater than, or greater than or equal to `map2` and `false`

otherwise.
A mapping can also be compared with another object that is not a mapping,
everything except booleans, lists, and records is smaller than a mapping.

If the source of `map1` is less than the source of `map2`, then `map1` is
considered to be less than `map2`. If the sources are equal and the
range of `map1` is less than the range of `map2`, then `map1` is
considered to be less than `map2`. If the sources and the ranges are
equal the mappings are compared lexicographically with respect to the
sets of images of the elements of the source under the mappings.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) gap> p4 < p5; true # since`(5,6,7)`

is the smallest nontrivial element of`g`

# and the image of`(5,6,7)`

under`p4`

is smaller # than the image of`(5,6,7)`

under`p5`

The operator `=`

calls

and
returns this value. The operator `map2`.operations.=( `map1`, `map2` )`<>`

also calls

and returns the logical `map2`.operations.=(
`map1`, `map2` )**not** of this value.

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.=`

, which first
compares the sources of `map1` and `map2`, then, if they are equal,
compares the ranges of `map1` and `map2`, and then, if both are equal and
the source is finite, compares the images of all elements of the source
under `map1` and `map2`. Look in the index under **equality** to see for
which mappings this function is overlaid.

The operator `<`

calls

and
returns this value. The operator `map2`.operations.<( `map1`, `map2` )`<=`

calls

and returns the logical `map2`.operations.<(
`map2`, `map1` )**not** of this value. The
operator `>`

calls

and returns
this value. The operator `map2`.operations.<( `map2`, `map1` )`>=`

calls

and returns the logical `map2`.operations.<( `map1`,
`map2` )**not** of this value.

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.<`

, which first
compares the sources of `map1` and `map2`, then, if they are equal,
compares the ranges of `map1` and `map2`, and then, if both are equal and
the source is finite, compares the images of all elements of the source
under `map1` and `map2`. Look in the index under **ordering** to see for
which mappings this function is overlaid.

`map1` * `map2`

The product operator `*`

applied to two mappings `map1` and `map2`
evaluates to the product of the two mappings, i.e., the mapping `map`
that maps each element `elm` of the source of `map1` to the value `(`

. Note that the range of `elm`
^ `map1`) ^ `map2``map1` must be a subset
of the source of `map2`. If `map1` and `map2` are homomorphisms then so
is the result. This can also be expressed as ```
CompositionMapping(
```

(see CompositionMapping). Note that the arguments of
`map2`, `map1` )`CompositionMapping`

are reversed.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) gap> p20 := p4 * p5; CompositionMapping( MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ), MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) )

`list` * `map`

`map` * `list`

As with every other type of group elements a mapping `map` can also be
multiplied with a list of mappings `list`. The result is a new list,
such that each entry is the product of the corresponding entry of `list`
with `map` (see Operations for Lists).

`elm` ^ `map`

The power operator `^`

applied to an element `elm` and a mapping `map`
evaluates to the image of `elm` under `map`, i.e., the element of the
range to which `map` maps `elm`. Note that `map` must be a single valued
mapping, a multi valued mapping is not allowed (see Images). This can
also be expressed as `Image( `

(see Image).
`map`, `elm` )

gap> (1,2,3,4) ^ p4; () gap> (2,4)(5,6,7) ^ p20; (5,7,6)

`map` ^ 0

The power operator `^`

applied to a mapping `map`, for which the range
must be a subset of the source, and the integer `0`

evaluates to the
identity mapping on the source of `map`, i.e., the mapping that maps each
element of the source to itself. If `map` is a homomorphism then so is
the result. This can also be expressed as `IdentityMapping( `

(see IdentityMapping).
`map`.source
)

gap> p20 ^ 0; IdentityMapping( g )

`map` ^ `n`

The power operator `^`

applied to a mapping `map`, for which the range
must be a subset of the source, and an positive integer `n` evaluates to
the `n`-fold composition of `map`. If `map` is a homomorphism then so is
the result. This can also be expressed as `PowerMapping( `

(see PowerMapping).
`map`, `n` )

gap> p16 := p4 ^ 2; CompositionMapping( CompositionMapping( IdentityMapping( g ), MappingB\ yFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) ), CompositionMapping( IdentityMapping( g ), MappingByFunction( \ g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) ) ) gap> p16 = MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^16 ); true

`bij` ^ -1

The power operator `^`

applied to a bijection `bij` and the integer `-1`

evaluates to the inverse mapping of `bij`, i.e., the mapping that maps
each element `img` of the range of `bij` to the uniq element `elm` of the
source of `bij` that maps to `img`. Note that `bij` must be a bijection,
a mapping that is not a bijection is not allowed. This can also be
expressed as `InverseMapping( `

(see InverseMapping).
`bij` )

gap> p5 ^ -1; InverseMapping( MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) ) gap> p4 ^ -1; Error, <lft> must be a bijection

`bij` ^ `z`

The power operator `^`

applied to a bijection `bij`, for which the
source and the range must be equal, and an integer `z` returns the
`z`-fold composition of `bij`. If `z` is 0 or positive see above, if `z`
is negative, this is equivalent to `(`

. If `bij` ^ -1) ^ -`z``bij`
is an automorphism then so is the result.

`aut1` ^ `aut2`

The power operator `^`

applied to two automorphisms `aut1` and `aut2`,
which must have equal sources (and thus ranges) returns the conjugate of
`aut1` by `aut2`, i.e.,

. The
result if of course again an automorphism.
`aut2` ^ -1 * `aut1` * `aut2`

The operator `*`

calls

and
returns this value.
`map2`.operations.*( `map1`, `map2` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.*`

which calls
`CompositionMapping`

to do the work. This function is seldom overlaid,
since `CompositionMapping`

does all the interesting work.

The operator `^`

calls

and
returns this value.
`map`.operations.^( `map1`, `map2` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.^`

, which calls
`Image`

, `IdentityMapping`

, `InverseMapping`

, or `PowerMapping`

to do the
work. This function is seldom overlaid, since `Image`

,
`IdentityMapping`

, `InverseMapping`

, and `PowerMapping`

do all the
interesting work.

`Image( `

`map`, `elm` )

In this form `Image`

returns the image of the element `elm` of the source
of the mapping `map` under `map`, i.e., the element of the range to which
`map` maps `elm`. Note that `map` must be a single valued mapping, a
multi valued mapping is not allowed (see Images). This can also be
expressed as

(see Operations for Mappings).
`elm` ^ `map`

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> Image( p4, (2,4)(5,6,7) ); (5,6,7) gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) gap> Image( p5, (2,4)(5,6,7) ); (2,4)(5,7,6)

`Image( `

`map`, `elms` )

In this form `Image`

returns the image of the set of elements `elms` of
the source of the mapping `map` under `map`, i.e., set of images of the
elements in `elms`. `elms` may be a proper set (see Sets) or a domain
(see Domains). The result will be a subset of the range of `map`,
either as a proper set or as a domain. Again `map` must be a single
valued mapping, a multi valued mapping is not allowed (see Images).

gap> Image( p4, Subgroup( g, [ (2,4), (5,6,7) ] ) ); [ (), (5,6,7), (5,7,6) ] gap> Image( p5, [ (5,6,7), (2,4) ] ); [ (5,7,6), (2,4) ]

Note that in the first example, the result is returned as a proper set,
even though it is mathematically a subgroup. This is because `p4`

is not
known to be a homomorphism, even though it is one.

`Image( `

`map` )

In this form `Image`

returns the image of the mapping `map`, i.e., the
subset of element of the range of `map` that are actually values of
`map`. Note that in this case the argument may also be a multi valued
mapping.

gap> Image( p4 ); [ (), (5,6,7), (5,7,6) ] gap> Image( p5 ) = g; true

`Image`

firsts checks in which form it is called.

In the first case it calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.ImageElm( `map`, `elm` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.ImageElm`

, which
checks that `map` is indeed a single valued mapping, calls ```
Images(
```

, and returns the single element of the set returned by
`map`, `elm` )`Images`

. Look in the index under **Image** to see for which mappings this
function is overlaid.

In the second case it calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.ImageSet( `map`, `elms` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.ImageSet`

, which
checks that `map` is indeed a single valued mapping, calls ```
Images(
```

, and returns this value. Look in the index under
`map`, `elms` )**Image** to see for which mappings this function is overlaid.

In the third case it tests if the field

is bound. If this
field is bound, it simply returns this value. Otherwise it calls
`map`.image

, remembers the returned value in
`map`.operations.ImageSource( `map` )

, and returns it.
`map`.image

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.ImageSource`

, which
calls `Images( `

, and returns this value. This
function is seldom overlaid, since all the work is done by
`map`, `map`.source )

.
`map`.operations.ImagesSet

`Images( `

`map`, `elm` )

In this form `Images`

returns the set of images of the element `elm` in
the source of the mapping `map` under `map`. `map` may be a multi valued
mapping.

```
gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";;
gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end )
gap> i4 := InverseMapping( p4 );
InverseMapping( MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end ) )
gap> IsMapping( i4 );
false #
````i4`

is multi valued
gap> Images( i4, () );
[ (), (2,4), (1,2)(3,4), (1,2,3,4), (1,3), (1,3)(2,4), (1,4,3,2),
(1,4)(2,3) ]
gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 5;
end )
gap> i5 := InverseMapping( p5 );
InverseMapping( MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 5;
end ) )
gap> Images( i5, () );
[ () ]

`Images( `

`map`, `elms` )

In this form `Images`

returns the set of images of the set of elements
`elms` in the source of `map` under `map`. `map` may be a multi valued
mapping. In any case `Images`

returns a set of elements of the range of
`map`, either as a proper set (see Sets) or as a domain (see
Domains).

gap> Images( i4, [ (), (5,6,7) ] ); [ (), (5,6,7), (2,4), (2,4)(5,6,7), (1,2)(3,4), (1,2)(3,4)(5,6,7), (1,2,3,4), (1,2,3,4)(5,6,7), (1,3), (1,3)(5,6,7), (1,3)(2,4), (1,3)(2,4)(5,6,7), (1,4,3,2), (1,4,3,2)(5,6,7), (1,4)(2,3), (1,4)(2,3)(5,6,7) ] gap> Images( i5, [ (), (5,6,7) ] ); [ (), (5,7,6) ]

`Images`

first checks in which form it is called.

In the first case it calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.ImagesElm( `map`, `elm` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.ImagesElm`

, which
just raises an error, since their is no default way to compute the images
of an element under a mapping about which nothing is known. Look in the
index under **Images** to see how images are computed for the various
mappings.

In the second case it calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.ImagesSet( `map`, `elms` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.ImagesSet`

, which
returns the union of the images of all the elements in the set `elms`.
Look in the index under **Images** to see for which mappings this function
is overlaid.

`ImagesRepresentative( `

`map`, `elm` )

`ImagesRepresentative`

returns a representative of the set of images of
`elm` under `map`, i.e., a single element `img`, such that

(see Images). `img` in
Images( `map`, `elm` )`map` may be a multi valued
mapping.

```
gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";;
gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 );
MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end )
gap> i4 := InverseMapping( p4 );
InverseMapping( MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x )
return x ^ 4;
end ) )
gap> IsMapping( i4 );
false #
````i4`

is multi valued
gap> ImagesRepresentative( i4, () );
()

`ImagesRepresentative`

calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.ImagesRepresentative( `map`, `elm` )

The default function called this way is
`MappingOps.ImagesRepresentative`

, which calls `Images( `

and returns the first element in this set. Look in the index under
`map`, `elm` )**ImagesRepresentative** to see for which mappings this function is
overlaid.

`PreImage( `

`bij`, `img` )

In this form `PreImage`

returns the preimage of the element `img` of the
range of the bijection `bij` under `bij`. The preimage is the unique
element of the source of `bij` that is mapped by `bij` to `img`. Note
that `bij` must be a bijection, a mapping that is not a bijection is not
allowed (see PreImages).

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> PreImage( p4, (5,6,7) ); Error, <bij> must be a bijection, not an arbitrary mapping gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) gap> PreImage( p5, (2,4)(5,6,7) ); (2,4)(5,7,6)

`PreImage( `

`bij`, `imgs` )

In this form `PreImage`

returns the preimage of the elements `imgs` of
the range of the bijection `bij` under `bij`. The primage of `imgs` is
the set of all preimages of the elements in `imgs`. `imgs` may be a
proper set (see Set) or a domain (see Domains). The result will be a
subset of the source of `bij`, either as a proper set or as a domain.
Again `bij` must be a bijection, a mapping that is not a bijection is not
allowed (see PreImages).

gap> PreImage( p4, [ (), (5,6,7) ] ); [ (), (5,6,7), (2,4), (2,4)(5,6,7), (1,2)(3,4), (1,2)(3,4)(5,6,7), (1,2,3,4), (1,2,3,4)(5,6,7), (1,3), (1,3)(5,6,7), (1,3)(2,4), (1,3)(2,4)(5,6,7), (1,4,3,2), (1,4,3,2)(5,6,7), (1,4)(2,3), (1,4)(2,3)(5,6,7) ] gap> PreImage( p5, Subgroup( g, [ (5,7,6), (2,4) ] ) ); [ (), (5,6,7), (5,7,6), (2,4), (2,4)(5,6,7), (2,4)(5,7,6) ]

`PreImage( `

`map` )

In this form `PreImage`

returns the preimage of the mapping `map`. The
preimage is the set of elements `elm` of the source of `map` that are
actually mapped to at least one element, i.e., for which ```
PreImages(
```

is nonempty. Note that in this case the argument may be
an arbitrary mapping (especially a multi valued one).
`map`, `elm` )

gap> PreImage( p4 ) = g; true

`PreImage`

firsts checks in which form it is called.

In the first case it calls

and returns this value.
`bij`.operations.PreImageElm( `bij`, `elm` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.PreImageElm`

, which
checks that `bij` is indeed a bijection, calls `PreImages( `

, and returns the single element of the set returned by `bij`, `elm`
)`PreImages`

.
Look in the index under **PreImage** to see for which mappings this
function is overlaid.

In the second case it calls

and returns this value.
`bij`.operations.PreImageSet( `bij`, `elms`
)

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.PreImageSet`

, which
checks that `map` is indeed a bijection, calls `PreImages( `

, and returns this value. Look in the index under `bij`, `elms`
)**PreImage** to see
for which mappings this is overlaid.

In the third case it tests if the field

is bound. If
this field is bound, it simply returns this value. Otherwise it calls
`map`.preImage

, remembers the returned value
in `map`.operations.PreImageRange( `map` )

, and returns it.
`map`.preImage

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.PreImageRange`

, which
calls `PreImages( `

, and returns this value. This
function is seldom overlaid, since all the work is done by
`map`, `map`.source )

.
`map`.operations.PreImagesSet

`PreImages( `

`map`, `img` )

In the first form `PreImages`

returns the set of elements from the source
of the mapping `map` that are mapped by `map` to the element `img` in the
range of `map`, i.e., the set of elements `elm` such that

(see Images). `img` in
Images( `map`, `elm` )`map` may be a multi valued
mapping.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> PreImages( p4, (5,6,7) ); [ (5,6,7), (2,4)(5,6,7), (1,2)(3,4)(5,6,7), (1,2,3,4)(5,6,7), (1,3)(5,6,7), (1,3)(2,4)(5,6,7), (1,4,3,2)(5,6,7), (1,4)(2,3)(5,6,7) ] gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) gap> PreImages( p5, (2,4)(5,6,7) ); [ (2,4)(5,7,6) ]

`PreImages( `

`map`, `imgs` )

In the second form `PreImages`

returns the set of all preimages of the
elements in the set of elements `imgs`, i.e., the union of the preimages
of the single elements of `imgs`. `map` may be a multi valued mapping.

gap> PreImages( p4, [ (), (5,6,7) ] ); [ (), (5,6,7), (2,4), (2,4)(5,6,7), (1,2)(3,4), (1,2)(3,4)(5,6,7), (1,2,3,4), (1,2,3,4)(5,6,7), (1,3), (1,3)(5,6,7), (1,3)(2,4), (1,3)(2,4)(5,6,7), (1,4,3,2), (1,4,3,2)(5,6,7), (1,4)(2,3), (1,4)(2,3)(5,6,7) ] gap> PreImages( p5, [ (), (5,6,7) ] ); [ (), (5,7,6) ]

`PreImages`

first checks in which form it is called.

In the first case it calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.PreImagesElm( `map`, `img`
)

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.PreImagesElm`

, which
runs through all elements of the source of `map`, if it is finite, and
returns the set of those that have `img` in their images. Look in the
index under **PreImages** to see for which mappings this function is
overlaid.

In the second case if calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.PreImagesSet( `map`, `imgs`
)

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.PreImagesSet`

, which
returns the union of the preimages of all the elements of the set `imgs`.
Look in the index under **PreImages** to see for which mappings this
function is overlaid.

`PreImagesRepresentative( `

`map`, `img` )

`PreImagesRepresentative`

returns an representative of the set of
preimages of `img` under `map`, i.e., a single element `elm`, such that

(see Images).
`img` in Images( `map`, `elm` )

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> PreImagesRepresentative( p4, (5,6,7) ); (5,6,7) gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) gap> PreImagesRepresentative( p5, (2,4)(5,6,7) ); (2,4)(5,7,6)

`PreImagesRepresentative`

calls

and returns this value.
`map`.operations.PreImagesRepresentative( `map`, `img` )

The default function called this way is
`MappingOps.PreImagesRepresentative`

, which calls `PreImages( `

and returns the first element in this set. Look in the index
under `map`,
`img` )**PreImagesRepresentative** to see for which mappings this function
is overlaid.

`CompositionMapping( `

`map1`.. )

`CompositionMapping`

returns the composition of the mappings `map1`,
`map2`, etc. where the range of each mapping must be a subset of the
source of the previous mapping. The mappings need not be single valued
mappings, i.e., multi valued mappings are allowed.

The composition of `map1` and `map2` is the mapping `map` that maps each
element `elm` of the source of `map2` to `Images( `

. If `map1`, Images( `map2`,
`elm` ) )`map1` and `map2` are single valued mappings this can
also be expressed as

(see Operations for Mappings).
Note the reversed operands.
`map2` * `map1`

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> p5 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^5 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) gap> p20 := CompositionMapping( p4, p5 ); CompositionMapping( MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ), MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 5; end ) ) gap> (2,4)(5,6,7) ^ p20; (5,7,6)

`CompositionMapping`

calls

and returns this value.
`map2`.operations.CompositionMapping( `map1`, `map2` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.CompositionMapping`

,
which constructs a new mapping `com`. This new mapping remembers `map1`
and `map2` as its factors in

and `com`.map1

and delegates
everything to them. For example to compute `com`.map2`Images( `

,
`com`, `elm` )

calls `com`.operations.ImagesElm`Images( `

. Look in the index under `com`.map1, Images(
`com`.map2, `elm` ) )**CompositionMapping** to
see for which mappings this function is overlaid.

`PowerMapping( `

`map`, `n` )

`PowerMapping`

returns the `n`-th power of the mapping `map`. `map` must
be a mapping whose range is a subset of its source. `n` must be a
nonnegative integer. `map` may be a multi valued mapping.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> p16 := p4 ^ 2; CompositionMapping( CompositionMapping( IdentityMapping( g ), MappingB\ yFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) ), CompositionMapping( IdentityMapping( g ), MappingByFunction( \ g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) ) ) gap> p16 = MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^16 ); true

`PowerMapping`

calls

and
returns this value.
`map`.operations.PowerMapping( `map`, `n` )

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.PowerMapping`

, which
computes the power using a binary powering algorithm, `IdentityMapping`

,
and `CompositionMapping`

. This function is seldom overlaid, because
`CompositionMapping`

does the interesting work.

`InverseMapping( `

`map` )

`InverseMapping`

returns the inverse mapping of the mapping `map`. The
inverse mapping `inv` is a mapping with source

, range
`map`.range

, such that each element `map`.source`elm` of its source is mapped to
the set `PreImages( `

(see PreImages). `map`, `elm` )`map` may be a
multi valued mapping.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> p4 := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^4 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) gap> i4 := InverseMapping( p4 ); InverseMapping( MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 4; end ) ) gap> Images( i4, () ); [ (), (2,4), (1,2)(3,4), (1,2,3,4), (1,3), (1,3)(2,4), (1,4,3,2), (1,4)(2,3) ]

`InverseMapping`

first tests if the field

is
bound. If the field is bound, it returns its value. Otherwise it calls
`map`.inverseMapping

, remembers the returned value
in `map`.operations.InverseMapping( `map` )

, and returns it.
`map`.inverseMapping

The default function called this way is `MappingOps.InverseMapping`

,
which constructs a new mapping `inv`. This new mapping remembers `map`
as its own inverse mapping in

and delegates
everything to it. For example to compute `inv`.inverseMapping`Image( `

,
`inv`, `elm` )

calls `inv`.operations.ImageElm`PreImage(`

.
Special types of mappings will overlay this default function with more
efficient functions.
`inv`.inverseMapping,`elm`)

`IdentityMapping( `

`D` )

`IdentityMapping`

returns the identity mapping on the domain `D`.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (2,4), (5,6,7) );; g.name := "g";; gap> i := IdentityMapping( g ); IdentityMapping( g ) gap> (1,2,3,4) ^ i; (1,2,3,4) gap> IsBijection( i ); true

`IdentityMapping`

calls

and
returns this value.
`D`.operations.IdentityMapping( `D` )

The functions usually called this way are `GroupOps.IdentityMapping`

if
the domain `D` is a group and `FieldOps.IdentityMapping`

if the domain
`D` is a field.

`MappingByFunction( `

`D`, `E`, `fun` )

`MappingByFunction`

returns a mapping `map` with source `D` and range `E`
such that each element `d` of `D` is mapped to the element

,
where `fun`(`d`)`fun` is a **GAP3** function.

gap> g := Group( (1,2,3,4), (1,2) );; g.name := "g";; gap> m := MappingByFunction( g, g, x -> x^2 ); MappingByFunction( g, g, function ( x ) return x ^ 2; end ) gap> (1,2,3) ^ m; (1,3,2) gap> IsHomomorphism( m ); false

`MappingByFunction`

constructs the mapping in the obvious way. For
example the image of an element under `map` is simply computed by
applying `fun` to the element.

A mapping `map` is represented by a record with the following components

`isGeneralMapping`

:-

always`true`

, indicating that this is a general mapping.

`source`

:-

the source of the mapping, i.e., the set of elements to which the mapping can be applied.

`range`

:-

the range of the mapping, i.e., a set in which all value of the mapping lie.

The following entries are optional. The functions with the corresponding names will generally test if they are present. If they are then their value is simply returned. Otherwise the functions will perform the computation and add those fields to those record for the next time.

`isMapping`

:-

`true`

if`map`is a single valued mapping and`false`

otherwise.

`isInjective`

`isSurjective`

`isBijection`

`isHomomorphism`

`isMonomorphism`

`isEpimorphism`

`isIsomorphism`

`isEndomorphism`

`isAutomorphism`

:-

`true`

if`map`has the corresponding property and`false`

otherwise.

`preImage`

:-

the subset of

of elements`map`.source`pre`that are actually mapped to at least one element, i.e., for which`Images(`

is nonempty.`map`,`pre`)

`image`

:-

the subset of

of the elements`map`.range`img`that are actually values of the mapping, i.e., for which`PreImages(`

is nonempty.`map`,`img`)

`inverseMapping`

:-

the inverse mapping of`map`. This is a mapping from

to`map`.range

that maps each element`map`.source`img`to the set`PreImages(`

.`map`,`img`)

The following entry is optional. It must be bound only if the inverse
of `map` is indeed a single valued mapping.

`inverseFunction`

:-

the inverse function of`map`.

The following entry is optional. It must be bound only if `map` is a
homomorphism.

`kernel`

:-

the elements of

that are mapped to the identity element of`map`.source

.`map`.range

gap3-jm

02 Dec 2021