A **finitely presented group** is a group generated by a set of **abstract
generators** subject to a set of **relations** that these generators
satisfy. Each group can be represented as finitely presented group.

A finitely presented group is constructed as follows. First create an appropriate free group (see FreeGroup). Then create the finitely presented group as a factor of this free group by the relators.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" ); Group( a, b ) gap> A5 := F2 / [ F2.1^2, F2.2^3, (F2.1*F2.2)^5 ]; Group( a, b ) gap> Size( A5 ); 60 gap> a := A5.1;; b := A5.2;; gap> Index( A5, Subgroup( A5, [ a*b ] ) ); 12

Note that, even though the generators print with the names given to
`FreeGroup`

, no variables of that name are defined. That means that the
generators must be entered as

and
`free-group`.`number`

.
`fp-group`.`number`

Note that the generators of the free group are different from the generators of the finitely presented group (even though they print with the same name). That means that words in the generators of the free group are not elements of the finitely presented group.

Note that the relations are entered as **relators**, i.e., as words in the
generators of the free group. To enter an equation use the quotient
operator, i.e., for the relation *a ^{b} = ab* you have to enter

`a^b/(a*b)`

.
You must **not** change the relators of a finitely presented group at all.

The elements of a finitely presented group are words. There is one
fundamental problem with this. Different words can correspond to the
same element in a finitely presented group. For example in the group
`A5`

defined above, `a`

and `a^3`

are actually the same element.
However, `a`

is not equal to `a^3`

(in the sense that `a = a^3`

is
`false`

). This leads to the following anomaly: `a^3 in A5`

is
`true`

, but `a^3 in Elements(A5)`

is `false`

. **Some set and group
functions will not work correctly because of this problem**. You should
therefore only use the functions mentioned in Set Functions for Finitely
Presented Groups and Group Functions for Finitely Presented Groups.

The first section in this chapter describes the function `FreeGroup`

that
creates a free group (see FreeGroup). The next sections describe which
set theoretic and group functions are implemented specially for finitely
presented groups and how they work (see Set Functions for Finitely
Presented Groups and Group Functions for Finitely Presented Groups).
The next section describes the basic function `CosetTableFpGroup`

that is
used by most other functions for finitely presented groups (see
CosetTableFpGroup). The next section describes how you can compute a
permutation group that is a homomorphic image of a finitely presented
group (see OperationCosetsFpGroup). The final section describes the
function that finds all subgroups of a finitely presented group of small
index (see LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup).

- FreeGroup
- Set Functions for Finitely Presented Groups
- Group Functions for Finitely Presented Groups
- CosetTableFpGroup
- OperationCosetsFpGroup
- IsIdenticalPresentationFpGroup
- LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup
- Presentation Records
- Changing Presentations
- Group Presentations
- Subgroup Presentations
- SimplifiedFpGroup
- Tietze Transformations
- DecodeTree

`FreeGroup( `

`n` )

`FreeGroup( `

`n`, `string` )

`FreeGroup( `

`name1`, `name2`.. )

`FreeGroup`

returns the free group on `n` generators. The generators are
displayed as

, `string`.1

, ..., `string`.2

. If
`string`.`n``string` is missing it defaults to `"f"`

. If `string` is the name of
the variable that you use to refer to the group returned by `FreeGroup`

you can also enter the generators as

.
`string`.`i`

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( 2, "A5" );; gap> A5 := F2 / [ F2.1^2, F2.2^3, (F2.1*F2.2)^5 ]; Group( A5.1, A5.2 ) gap> Size( A5 ); 60 gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" );; gap> D8 := F2 / [ F2.1^4, F2.2^2, F2.1^F2.2 / F2.1 ]; Group( a, b ) gap> a := D8.1;; b := D8.2;; gap> Index( D8, Subgroup( D8, [ a ] ) ); 2

Finitely presented groups are domains, thus in principle all set
theoretic functions are applicable to them (see chapter Domains).
However because words that are not equal may denote the same element of a
finitely presented group many of them will not work correctly. This
sections describes which set theoretic functions are implemented
specially for finitely presented groups and how they work. You should
**not** use the set theoretic functions that are not mentioned in this
section.

The general information that enables **GAP3** to work with a finitely
presented group `G` is a **coset table** (see CosetTableFpGroup).
Basically a coset table is the permutation representation of the finitely
presented group on the cosets of a subgroup (which need not be faithful
if the subgroup has a nontrivial core). Most of the functions below use
the regular representation of `G`, i.e., the coset table of `G` over the
trivial subgroup. Such a coset table is computed by a method called
**coset enumeration**.

The size is simply the degree of the regular representation of `G`.

A word `w` lies in a parent group `G` if all its letters are among the
generators of `G`.

`w` in `H`

To test whether a word `w` lies in a subgroup `H` of a finitely presented
group `G`, **GAP3** computes the coset table of `G` over `H`. Then it
tests whether the permutation one gets by replacing each generator of `G`
in `w` with the corresponding permutation is trivial.

The elements of a finitely presented group are computed by computing the
regular representation of `G`. Then for each point `p` **GAP3** adds the
smallest word `w` that, when viewed as a permutation, takes 1 to `p` to
the set of elements. Note that this implies that each word in the set
returned is the smallest word that denotes an element of `G`.

`Elements( `

`H` )

The elements of a subgroup `H` of a finitely presented group `G` are
computed by computing the elements of `G` and returning those that lie in
`H`.

The intersection of two subgroups `H1` and `H2` of a finitely presented
group `G` is computed as follows. First **GAP3** computes the coset tables
of `G` over `H1` and `H2`. Then it computes the tensor product of those
two permutation representations. The coset table of the intersection is
the transitive constituent of 1 in this tensored permutation
representation. Finally **GAP3** computes a set of Schreier generators for
the intersection by performing another coset enumeration using the
already complete coset table. The intersection is returned as the
subgroup generated by those Schreier generators.

Finitely presented groups are after all groups, thus in principle all
group functions are applicable to them (see chapter Groups). However
because words that are not equal may denote the same element of a
finitely presented group many of them will not work correctly. This
sections describes which group functions are implemented specially for
finitely presented groups and how they work. You should **not** use the
group functions that are not mentioned in this section.

The general information that enables **GAP3** to work with a finitely
presented group `G` is a **coset table** (see CosetTableFpGroup).
Basically a coset table is the permutation representation of the finitely
presented group on the cosets of a subgroup (which need not be faithful
if the subgroup has a nontrivial core). Most of the functions below use
the regular representation of `G`, i.e., the coset table of `G` over the
trivial subgroup. Such a coset table is computed by a method called
**coset enumeration**.

The order of an element `g` is computed by translating the element into
the regular permutation representation and computing the order of this
permutation (which is the length of the cycle of 1).

The index of a subgroup `H` in a finitely presented group `G` is simply
the degree of the permutation representation of the group `G` on the
cosets of `H`.

The normalizer of a subgroup `H` of a finitely presented group `G` is the
union of those cosets of `H` in `G` that are fixed by all the generators
of `H` when viewed as permutations in the permutation representation of
`G` on the cosets of `H`. The normalizer is returned as the subgroup
generated by the generators of `H` and representatives of such cosets.

The commutator factor group of a finitely presented group `G` is returned
as a new finitely presented group. The relations of this group are the
relations of `G` plus the commutator of all the pairs of generators of
`G`.

The abelian invariants of a abelian finitely presented group (e.g., a
commutator factor group of an arbitrary finitely presented group) are
computed by building the relation matrix of `G` and transforming this
matrix to diagonal form with `ElementaryDivisorsMat`

(see
ElementaryDivisorsMat).

`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroup( `

`G`, `H` )

`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroup( `

`G`, `cosettable` )

This function is equivalent to `AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroupRrs`

below, but note that there is an alternative function,
`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroupMtc`

.

`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroupRrs( `

`G`, `H` )

`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroupRrs( `

`G`, `cosettable` )

`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroupRrs`

returns the invariants of the
commutator factor group `H/H'` of a subgroup `H` of a finitely presented
group `G`. They are computed by first applying an abelianized Reduced
Reidemeister-Schreier procedure (see Subgroup Presentations) to
construct a relation matrix of `H/H'` and then transforming this matrix
to diagonal form with `ElementaryDivisorsMat`

(see
ElementaryDivisorsMat).

As second argument, you may provide either the subgroup `H` itself or its
coset table in `G`.

`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroupMtc( `

`G`, `H` )

`AbelianInvariantsSubgroupFpGroupMtc`

returns the invariants of the
commutator factor group `H/H'` of a subgroup `H` of a finitely presented
group `G`. They are computed by applying an abelianized Modified
Todd-Coxeter procedure (see Subgroup Presentations) to construct a
relation matrix of `H/H'` and then transforming this matrix to diagonal
form with `ElementaryDivisorsMat`

(see ElementaryDivisorsMat).

`AbelianInvariantsNormalClosureFpGroup( `

`G`, `H` )

This function is equivalent to `AbelianInvariantsNormalClosureFpGroupRrs`

below.

`AbelianInvariantsNormalClosureFpGroupRrs( `

`G`, `H` )

`AbelianInvariantsNormalClosureFpGroupRrs`

returns the invariants of the
commutator factor group `N/N'` of the normal closure `N` a subgroup `H`
of a finitely presented group `G`. They are computed by first applying
an abelianized Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier procedure (see Subgroup
Presentations) to construct a relation matrix of `N/N'` and then
transforming this matrix to diagonal form with `ElementaryDivisorsMat`

(see ElementaryDivisorsMat).

gap> # Define the Coxeter group E1. gap> F5 := FreeGroup( "x1", "x2", "x3", "x4", "x5" );; gap> E1 := F5 / [ F5.1^2, F5.2^2, F5.3^2, F5.4^2, F5.5^2, > ( F5.1 * F5.3 )^2, ( F5.2 * F5.4 )^2, ( F5.1 * F5.2 )^3, > ( F5.2 * F5.3 )^3, ( F5.3 * F5.4 )^3, ( F5.4 * F5.1 )^3, > ( F5.1 * F5.5 )^3, ( F5.2 * F5.5 )^2, ( F5.3 * F5.5 )^3, > ( F5.4 * F5.5 )^2, > ( F5.1 * F5.2 * F5.3 * F5.4 * F5.3 * F5.2 )^2 ];; gap> x1:=E1.1;; x2:=E1.2;; x3:=E1.3;; x4:=E1.4;; x5:=E1.5;; gap> # Get normal subgroup generators for B1. gap> H := Subgroup( E1, [ x5 * x2^-1, x5 * x4^-1 ] );; gap> # Compute the abelian invariants of B1/B1'. gap> A := AbelianInvariantsNormalClosureFpGroup( E1, H ); [ 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2 ] gap> # Compute a presentation for B1. gap> P := PresentationNormalClosure( E1, H ); << presentation with 18 gens and 46 rels of total length 132 >> gap> SimplifyPresentation( P ); #I there are 8 generators and 30 relators of total length 148 gap> B1 := FpGroupPresentation( P ); Group( _x1, _x2, _x3, _x4, _x6, _x7, _x8, _x11 ) gap> # Compute normal subgroup generators for B1'. gap> gens := B1.generators;; gap> numgens := Length( gens );; gap> comms := [ ];; gap> for i in [ 1 .. numgens - 1 ] do > for j in [i+1 .. numgens ] do > Add( comms, Comm( gens[i], gens[j] ) ); > od; > od; gap> # Compute the abelian invariants of B1'/B1". gap> K := Subgroup( B1, comms );; gap> A := AbelianInvariantsNormalClosureFpGroup( B1, K ); [ 0, 0, 0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2 ]

The prededing calculation for *B _{1}* and a similar one for

The following functions are not implemented specially for finitely presented groups, but they work nevertheless. However, you probably should not use them for larger finitely presented groups.

`Core( `

`G`, `U` )

`SylowSubgroup( `

`G`, `p` )

`FittingSubgroup( `

`G` )

`CosetTableFpGroup( `

`G`, `H` )

`CosetTableFpGroup`

returns the coset table of the finitely presented
group `G` on the cosets of the subgroup `H`.

Basically a coset table is the permutation representation of the finitely
presented group on the cosets of a subgroup (which need not be faithful
if the subgroup has a nontrivial core). Most of the set theoretic and
group functions use the regular representation of `G`, i.e., the coset
table of `G` over the trivial subgroup.

The coset table is returned as a list of lists. For each generator of
`G` and its inverse the table contains a generator list. A generator
list is simply a list of integers. If `l` is the generator list for the
generator `g` and

then generator `l`[`i`] = `j``g` takes the coset `i`
to the coset `j` by multiplication from the right. Thus the permutation
representation of `G` on the cosets of `H` is obtained by applying
`PermList`

to each generator list (see PermList). The coset table is
standardized, i.e., the cosets are sorted with respect to the smallest
word that lies in each coset.

```
gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" );
Group( a, b )
gap> A5 := F2 / [ F2.1^2, F2.2^3, (F2.1*F2.2)^5 ];
Group( a, b )
gap> CosetTableFpGroup( A5,
> Subgroup( A5, [ A5.1, A5.2*A5.1*A5.2*A5.1*A5.2^-1 ] ) );
[ [ 1, 3, 2, 5, 4 ],
[ 1, 3, 2, 5, 4 ], # inverse of above,
````A5.1`

is an involution
[ 2, 4, 3, 1, 5 ],
[ 4, 1, 3, 2, 5 ] ] # inverse of above
gap> List( last, PermList );
[ (2,3)(4,5), (2,3)(4,5), (1,2,4), (1,4,2) ]

The coset table is computed by a method called **coset enumeration**. A
**Felsch strategy** is used to decide how to define new cosets.

The variable `CosetTableFpGroupDefaultLimit`

determines for how many
cosets the table has initially room. `CosetTableFpGroup`

will
automatically extend this table if need arises, but this is an expensive
operation. Thus you should set `CosetTableFpGroupDefaultLimit`

to the
number of cosets that you expect will be needed at most. However you
should not set it too high, otherwise too much space will be used by the
coset table.

The variable `CosetTableFpGroupDefaultMaxLimit`

determines the maximal
size of the coset table. If a coset enumeration reaches this limit it
signals an error and enters the breakloop. You can either continue or
quit the computation from there. Setting the limit to `0`

allows
arbitrary large coset tables.

`OperationCosetsFpGroup( `

`G`, `H` )

`OperationCosetsFpGroup`

returns the permutation representation of the
finitely presented group `G` on the cosets of the subgroup `H` as a
permutation group. Note that this permutation representation is faithful
if and only if `H` has a trivial core in `G`.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" ); Group( a, b ) gap> A5 := F2 / [ F2.1^2, F2.2^3, (F2.1*F2.2)^5 ]; Group( a, b ) gap> OperationCosetsFpGroup( A5, > Subgroup( A5, [ A5.1, A5.2*A5.1*A5.2*A5.1*A5.2^-1 ] ) ); Group( (2,3)(4,5), (1,2,4) ) gap> Size( last ); 60

`OperationCosetsFpGroup`

simply calls `CosetTableFpGroup`

, applies
`PermList`

to each row of the table, and returns the group generated by
those permutations (see CosetTableFpGroup, PermList).

`IsIdenticalPresentationFpGroup( `

`G`, `H` )

`IsIdenticalPresentationFpGroup`

returns `true`

if the presentations of
the parent groups `G` and `H` are identical and `false`

otherwise.

Two presentations are considered identical if the have the same number of
generators, i.e., `G` is generated by `g1` ... `gn` and `H` by `h1` ...
`hn`, and if the set of relators of `G` stored in

is equal
to the set of relators of `G`.relators`H` stored in `H`.relators**after** replacing
`hi` by `gi` in these words.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup(2); Group( f.1, f.2 ) gap> g := F2 / [ F2.1^2 / F2.2 ]; Group( f.1, f.2 ) gap> h := F2 / [ F2.1^2 / F2.2 ]; Group( f.1, f.2 ) gap> g = h; false gap> IsIdenticalPresentationFpGroup( g, h ); true

`LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup( `

`G`, `H`, `index` )

`LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup( `

`G`, `H`, `index`, `excluded` )

`LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup`

returns a list of representatives of the
conjugacy classes of subgroups of the finitely presented group `G` that
contain the subgroup `H` of `H` and that have index less than or equal to
`index`.

The function provides some intermediate output if `InfoFpGroup2`

has been
set to `Print`

(its default value is `Ignore`

).

If the optional argument `excluded` has been specified, then it is
expected to be a list of words in the generators of `G`, and
`LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup`

returns only those subgroups of index at most
`index` that contain `H`, but do not contain any conjugate of any of the
group elements defined by these words.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" ); Group( a, b ) gap> A5 := F2 / [ F2.1^2, F2.2^3, (F2.1*F2.2)^5 ]; Group( a, b ) gap> A5.name := "A5";; gap> S := LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup( A5, TrivialSubgroup( A5 ), 12 ); [ A5, Subgroup( A5, [ a, b*a*b^-1 ] ), Subgroup( A5, [ a, b*a*b*a^-1*b^-1 ] ), Subgroup( A5, [ a, b*a*b*a*b^-1*a^-1*b^-1 ] ), Subgroup( A5, [ b*a^-1 ] ) ] gap> List( S, H -> Index( A5, H ) ); [ 1, 6, 5, 10, 12 ] # the indices of the subgroups gap> List( S, H -> Index( A5, Normalizer( A5, H ) ) ); [ 1, 6, 5, 10, 6 ] # the lengths of the conjugacy classes

As an example for an application of the optional parameter `excluded`, we
compute all conjugacy classes of torsion free subgroups of index at most
24 in the group *G = ⟨ x,y,z | x ^{2}, y^{4}, z^{3}, (xy)^{3}, (yz)^{2},
(xz)^{3} ⟩*. It is know from theory that each torsion element of
this group is conjugate to a power of

gap> G := FreeGroup( "x", "y", "z" ); Group( x, y, z ) gap> x := G.1;; y := G.2;; z := G.3;; gap> G.relators := [ x^2, y^4, z^3, (x*y)^3, (y*z)^2, (x*z)^3 ];; gap> torsion := [ x, y, y^2, z, x*y, x*z, y*z ];; gap> InfoFpGroup2 := Print;; gap> lis := > LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup( G, TrivialSubgroup( G ), 24, torsion );; #I class 1 of index 24 and length 8 #I class 2 of index 24 and length 24 #I class 3 of index 24 and length 24 #I class 4 of index 24 and length 24 #I class 5 of index 24 and length 24 gap> InfoFpGroup2 := Ignore;; gap> lis; [ Subgroup( Group( x, y, z ), [ x*y*z^-1, z*x*z^-1*y^-1, x*z*x*y^-1*z^-1, y*x*z*y^-1*z^-1 ] ), Subgroup( Group( x, y, z ), [ x*y*z^-1, z^2*x^-1*y^-1, x*z*y*x^-1*z^-1 ] ), Subgroup( Group( x, y, z ), [ x*y*z^-1, x*z^2*x^-1*y^-1, y^2*x*y^-1*z^-1*x^-1 ] ), Subgroup( Group( x, y, z ), [ x*y*z^-1, y^3*x^-1*z^-1*x^-1, y^2*z*x^-1*y^-1 ] ), Subgroup( Group( x, y, z ), [ y*x*z^-1, x*y*z*y^-1*z^-1, y^2*z*x^-1*z^-1*x^-1 ] ) ]

The function `LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup`

finds the requested subgroups by
systematically running through a tree of all potential coset tables of
`G` of length at most `index` (where it skips all branches of that tree
for which it knows in advance that they cannot provide new classes of
such subgroups). The time required to do this depends, of course, on the
presentation of `G`, but in general it will grow exponentially with the
value of `index`. So you should be careful with the choice of `index`.

In **GAP3**, **finitely presented groups** are distinguished from **group
presentations** which are **GAP3** objects of their own and which are stored
in **presentation records**. The reason is that very often presentations
have to be changed (e.g. simplified) by Tietze transformations, but since
in these new generators and relators are introduced, all words in the
generators of a finitely presented group would also have to be changed if
such a Tietze transformation were applied to the presentation of a
finitely presented group. Therefore, in **GAP3** the presentation defining
a finitely presented group is never changed; changes are only allowed for
group presentations which are not considered to define a particular
group.

**GAP3** offers a bundle of commands to perform Tietze transformations on
finite group presentations (see SimplifiedFpGroup, Tietze
Transformations). In order to speed up the respective routines, the
relators in such a presentation record are not represented by ordinary
(abstract) **GAP3** words, but by lists of positive or negative generator
numbers which we call **Tietze words**.

The term ``**Tietze record**'' will sometimes be used as an alias for
``**presentation record**''. It occurs, in particular, in certain error
messages.

The following two commands can be used to create a presentation record from a finitely presented group or, vice versa, to create a finitely presented group from a presentation.

`PresentationFpGroup( `

`G` )

`PresentationFpGroup( `

`G`, `printlevel` )

`PresentationFpGroup`

returns a presentation record containing a copy of
the presentation of the given finitely presented group `G` on the same
set of generators.

The optional `printlevel` parameter can be used to restrict or to extend
the amount of output provided by Tietze transformation commands when
being applied to the created presentation record. The default value 1 is
designed for interactive use and implies explicit messages to be
displayed by most of these commands. A `printlevel` value of 0 will
suppress these messages, whereas a `printlevel` value of 2 will enforce
some additional output.

`FpGroupPresentation`

returns a finitely presented group defined by the
presentation in the given presentation record `P`.

If some presentation record `P`, say, contains a large presentation, then
it would be nasty to wait for the end of an unintentionally started
printout of all of its components (or, more precisely, of its component

which contains the essential lists). Therefore, whenever
you use the standard print facilities to display a presentation record,
`P`.tietze**GAP3** will provide just one line of text containing the number of
generators, the number of relators, and the total length of all relators.
Of course, you may use the `RecFields`

and `PrintRec`

commands to display
all components of `P`.

In addition, you may use the following commands to extract and print different amounts of information from a presentation record.

`TzPrintStatus`

prints the current state of a presentation record `P`,
i.e., the number of generators, the number of relators, and the total
length of all relators.

If you are working interactively, you can get the same information by
just typing `P`;

`TzPrintGenerators( `

`P` )

`TzPrintGenerators( `

`P`, `list` )

`TzPrintGenerators`

prints the current list of generators of a
presentation record `P`, providing for each generator its name, the total
number of its occurrences in the relators, and, if that generator is
known to be an involution, an appropriate message.

If a list `list` has been specified as second argument, then it is
expected to be a list of the position numbers of the generators to be
printed. `list` need not be sorted and may contain duplicate elements.
The generators are printed in the order in which and as often as their
numbers occur in `list`. Position numbers out of range (with respect to
the list of generators) will be ignored.

`TzPrintRelators( `

`P` )

`TzPrintRelators( `

`P`, `list` )

`TzPrintRelators`

prints the current list of relators of a presentation
record `P`.

If a list `list` has been specified as second argument, then it is
expected to be a list of the position numbers of the relators to be
printed. `list` need not be sorted and may contain duplicate elements.
The relators are printed as Tietze words in the order in which (and as
often as) their numbers occur in `list`. Position numbers out of range
(with respect to the list of relators) will be ignored.

`TzPrintPresentation`

prints the current lists of generators and relators
and the current state of a presentation record `P`. In fact, the command

` TzPrintPresentation( P ) `

is an abbreviation of the command sequence

Print( "generators:\n" ); TzPrintGenerators( P ); Print( "relators:\n" ); TzPrintRelators( P ); TzPrintStatus( P );

`TzPrint( `

`P` )

`TzPrint( `

`P`, `list` )

`TzPrint`

provides a kind of **fast print out** for a presentation record
`P`.

Remember that in order to speed up the Tietze transformation routines,
each relator in a presentation record `P` is internally represented by a
list of positive or negative generator numbers, i.e., each factor of the
proper **GAP3** word is represented by the position number of the
corresponding generator with respect to the current list of generators,
or by the respective negative number, if the factor is the inverse of a
generator which is not known to be an involution. In contrast to the
commands `TzPrintRelators`

and `TzPrintPresentation`

described above,
`TzPrint`

does not convert these lists back to the corresponding **GAP3**
words.

`TzPrint`

prints the current list of generators, and then for each
relator its length and its internal representation as a list of positive
or negative generator numbers.

If a list `list` has been specified as second argument, then it is
expected to be a list of the position numbers of the relators to be
printed. `list` need not be sorted and may contain duplicate elements.
The relators are printed in the order in which and as often as their
numbers occur in `list`. Position numbers out of range (with respect to
the list of relators) will be ignored.

There are four more print commands for presentation records which are convenient in the context of the interactive Tietze transformation commands:

`TzPrintGeneratorImages( `

`P` )

`TzPrintLengths( `

`P` )

`TzPrintPairs( `

`P` )

`TzPrintPairs( `

`P`, `n` )

`TzPrintOptions( `

`P` )

Moreover, there are two functions which allow to convert abstract words to Tietze words or Tietze words to abstract words.

`TietzeWordAbstractWord( `

`word`, `generators` )

Let `generators` be a list of abstract generators and `word` an abstract
word in these generators. The function `TietzeWordAbstractWord`

returns
the corresponding (reduced) Tietze word.

gap> F := FreeGroup( "a", "b", "c" ); Group( a, b, c ) gap> tzword := TietzeWordAbstractWord( > Comm(F.1,F.2) * (F.3^2 * F.2)^-1, F.generators ); [ -1, -2, 1, -3, -3 ]

`AbstractWordTietzeWord( `

`word`, `generators` )

Let `generators` be a list of abstract generators and `word` a Tietze
word in these generators. The function `AbstractWordTietzeWord`

returns
the corresponding abstract word.

gap> AbstractWordTietzeWord( tzword, F.generators ); a^-1*b^-1*a*c^-2

The function `Save`

allows to save a presentation and to recover it in a
later **GAP3** session.

Let `P` be a presentation, and let `file` and `name` be strings denoting
a file name and a variable name, respectively. The function `Save`

generates a new file `file` and writes `P` and `name` to that file in
such a way that a copy of `P` can be reestablished by just reading the
file with the function `Read`

. This copy of `P` will be assigned to a
variable called `name`.

Warning: It is not guaranteed that the functions `Save`

and `Read`

work properly if the presentation record `P` contains additional, user
defined components. For instance, components involving abstract words
cannot be read in again as soon as the associated generators are not
available any more.

Example.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" );; gap> G := F2 / [ F2.1^2, F2.2^7, Comm(F2.1,F2.1^F2.2), > Comm(F2.1,F2.1^(F2.2^2))*(F2.1^F2.2)^-1 ]; Group( a, b ) gap> a := G.1;; b := G.2;; gap> P := PresentationFpGroup( G ); << presentation with 2 gens and 4 rels of total length 30 >> gap> TzPrintGenerators( P ); #I 1. a 11 occurrences involution #I 2. b 19 occurrences gap> TzPrintRelators( P ); #I 1. a^2 #I 2. b^7 #I 3. a*b^-1*a*b*a*b^-1*a*b #I 4. a*b^-2*a*b^2*a*b^-2*a*b*a*b gap> TzPrint( P ); #I generators: [ a, b ] #I relators: #I 1. 2 [ 1, 1 ] #I 2. 7 [ 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2 ] #I 3. 8 [ 1, -2, 1, 2, 1, -2, 1, 2 ] #I 4. 13 [ 1, -2, -2, 1, 2, 2, 1, -2, -2, 1, 2, 1, 2 ] gap> TzPrintStatus( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 4 relators of total length 30 gap> Save( "checkpoint", P, "P0" ); gap> Read( "checkpoint" ); #I presentation record P0 read from file gap> P0; << presentation with 2 gens and 4 rels of total length 30 >>

The commands described in this section can be used to change the
presentation in a presentation record. Note that, in general, they will
change the isomorphism type of the group defined by the presentation.
Hence, though they sometimes are called as subroutines by Tietze
transformations commands like `TzSubstitute`

(see Tietze
Transformations), they do **not** perform Tietze transformations
themselves.

`AddGenerator( `

`P` )

`AddGenerator( `

`P`, `generator` )

`AddGenerator`

adds a new generator to the list of generators.

If you don't specify a second argument, then `AddGenerator`

will define
a new abstract generator `_x`

and save it in a new component
`i`

of the given presentation record where `P`.`i``i` is the least
positive integer which has not yet been used as a generator number.
Though this new generator will be printed as `_x`

, you will have to
use the external variable `i`

if you want to access it.
`P`.`i`

If you specify a second argument, then `generator` must be an abstract
generator which does not yet occur in the presentation. `AddGenerator`

will add it to the presentation and save it in a new component

in the same way as described for \_x`P`.`i``i` above.

`AddRelator`

adds the word `word` to the list of relators. `word` must
be a word in the generators of the given presentation.

`RemoveRelator`

removes the `n`th relator and then resorts the list of
relators in the given presentation record `P`.

In section Presentation Records we have described the funtion
`PresentationFpGroup`

which supplies a presentation record for a finitely
presented group. The following function can be used to compute a
presentation record for a concrete (e.g. permutation or matrix) group.

`PresentationViaCosetTable( `

`G` )

`PresentationViaCosetTable( `

`G`, `F`, `words` )

`PresentationViaCosetTable`

constructs a presentation record for the
given group `G`. The method being used is John Cannon's relations
finding algorithm which has been described in Can73 or in
Neu82.

In its first form, if only the group `G` has been specified, it applies
Cannon's single stage algorithm which, by plain element multiplication,
computes a coset table of `G` with respect to its trivial subgroup and
then uses coset enumeration methods to find a defining set of relators
for `G`.

gap> G := GeneralLinearGroup( 2, 7 ); GL(2,7) gap> G.generators; [ [ [ Z(7), 0*Z(7) ], [ 0*Z(7), Z(7)^0 ] ], [ [ Z(7)^3, Z(7)^0 ], [ Z(7)^3, 0*Z(7) ] ] ] gap> Size( G ); 2016 gap> P := PresentationViaCosetTable( G ); << presentation with 2 gens and 5 rels of total length 46 >> gap> TzPrintRelators( P ); #I 1. f.2^3 #I 2. f.1^6 #I 3. f.1*f.2*f.1*f.2*f.1*f.2*f.1*f.2*f.1*f.2*f.1*f.2 #I 4. f.1*f.2*f.1^-1*f.2*f.1*f.2^-1*f.1^-1*f.2*f.1*f.2*f.1^-1*f.2^-1 #I 5. f.1^2*f.2*f.1*f.2*f.1*f.2^-1*f.1^-1*f.2^-1*f.1^3*f.2^-1

The second form allows to call Cannon's two stage algorithm which first
applies the single stage algorithm to an appropriate subgroup `H` of `G`
and then uses the resulting relators of `H` and a coset table of `G` with
respect to `H` to find relators of `G`. In this case the second argument,
`F`, is assumed to be a free group with the same number of generators as
`G`, and `words` is expected to be a list of words in the generators of
`F` which, when being evaluated in the corresponding generators of `G`,
provide subgroup generators for `H`.

gap> M12 := MathieuGroup( 12 );; gap> M12.generators; [ ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10,11), ( 3, 7,11, 8)( 4,10, 5, 6), ( 1,12)( 2,11)( 3, 6)( 4, 8)( 5, 9)( 7,10) ] gap> F := FreeGroup( "a", "b", "c" ); Group( a, b, c ) gap> words := [ F.1, F.2 ]; [ a, b ] gap> P := PresentationViaCosetTable( M12, F, words ); << presentation with 3 gens and 10 rels of total length 97 >> gap> G := FpGroupPresentation( P ); Group( a, b, c ) gap> G.relators; [ c^2, b^4, a*c*a*c*a*c, a*b^-2*a*b^-2*a*b^-2, a^11, a^2*b*a^-2*b^-2*a*b^-1*a^2*b^-1, a*b*a^-1*b*a^-1*b^-1*a*b*a^-1*b*a^-1*b^-1, a^2*b*a^2*b^-2*a^-1*b*a^-1*b^-1*a^-1*b^-1, a^2*b^-1*a^-1*b^-1*a*c*b*c*a*b*a*b, a^3*b*a^2*b*a^-2*c*a*b*a^-1*c*a ]

Before it is returned, the resulting presentation is being simplified by
appropriate calls of the function `SimplifyPresentation`

(see Tietze
Transformations), but without allowing it to eliminate any
generators. This restriction guarantees that we get a bijection between
the list of generators of `G` and the list of generators in the
presentation. Hence, if the generators of `G` are redundant and if you
don't care for the bijection, it may be convenient to apply the function
`SimplifyPresentation`

again.

gap> H := Group( > [ (2,5,3), (2,7,5), (1,8,4), (1,8,6), (4,8,6), (3,5,7) ], () );; gap> P := PresentationViaCosetTable( H ); << presentation with 6 gens and 12 rels of total length 42 >> gap> SimplifyPresentation( P ); #I there are 4 generators and 10 relators of total length 36

`PresentationSubgroupRrs( `

`G`, `H` )

`PresentationSubgroupRrs( `

`G`, `H`, `string` )

`PresentationSubgroupRrs( `

`G`, `cosettable` )

`PresentationSubgroupRrs( `

`G`, `cosettable`, `string` )

`PresentationSubgroupRrs`

returns a presentation record (see
Presentation Records) containing a presentation for the subgroup `H` of
the finitely presented group `G`. It uses the Reduced
Reidemeister-Schreier method to construct this presentation.

As second argument, you may provide either the subgroup `H` itself or its
coset table in `G`.

The generators in the resulting presentation will be named by

, `string`1

, ..., the default string is `string`2`"_x"`

.

The Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier algorithm is a modification of the
Reidemeister-Schreier algorithm of George Havas Hav74b. It was
proposed by Joachim Neubüser and first implemented in 1986 by
Andrea Lucchini and Volkmar Felsch in the SPAS system Spa89. Like
George Havas' Reidemeister-Schreier algorithm, it needs only the
presentation of `G` and a coset table of `H` in `G` to construct a
presentation of `H`.

Whenever you call the `PresentationSubgroupRrs`

command, it checks first
whether a coset table of `H` in `G` has already been computed and saved
in the subgroup record of `H` by a preceding call of some appropriate
command like `CosetTableFpGroup`

(see CosetTableFpGroup), `Index`

(see
Index), or `LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup`

(see LowIndexSubgroupsFpGroup).
Only if the coset table is not yet available, it is now constructed by
`PresentationSubgroupRrs`

which calls `CosetTableFpGroup`

for this
purpose. In this case, of course, a set of generators of `H` is
required, but they will not be used any more in the subsequent steps.

Next, a set of generators of `H` is determined by reconstructing the
coset table and introducing in that process as many Schreier generators
of `H` in `G` as are needed to do a Felsch strategy coset enumeration
without any coincidences. (In general, though containing redundant
generators, this set will be much smaller than the set of all Schreier
generators. That's why we call the method the **Reduced**
Reidemeister-Schreier.)

After having constructed this set of **primary subgroup generators** , say,
the coset table is extended to an **augmented coset table** which describes
the action of the group generators on coset representatives, i.e., on
elements instead of cosets. For this purpose, suitable words in the
(primary) subgroup generators have to be associated to the coset table
entries. In order to keep the lengths of these words short, additional
**secondary subgroup generators** are introduced as abbreviations of
subwords. Their number may be large.

Finally, a Reidemeister rewriting process is used to get defining
relators for `H` from the relators of `G`. As the resulting presentation
of `H` is a presentation on primary **and** secondary generators, in
general you will have to simplify it by appropriate Tietze
transformations (see Tietze Transformations) or by the `DecodeTree`

command (see DecodeTree) before you can use it. Therefore it is
returned in the form of a presentation record, `P` say.

Compared with the Modified Todd-Coxeter method described below, the
Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier method (as well as Havas' original
Reidemeister-Schreier program) has the advantage that it does not require
generators of `H` to be given if a coset table of `H` in `G` is known.
This provides a possibility to compute a presentation of the normal
closure of a given subgroup (see the `PresentationNormalClosureRrs`

command below).

As you may be interested not only to get the resulting presentation, but
also to know what the involved subgroup generators are, the function
`PresentationSubgroupRrs`

will also return a list of the primary
generators of `H` as words in the generators of `G`. It is provided in
form of an additional component

of the
resulting presentation record `P`.primaryGeneratorWords`P`.

Note however: As stated in the description of the function `Save`

(see
Presentation Records), the function `Read`

cannot properly recover a
component involving abstract generators different from the current
generators when it reads a presentation which has been written to a file
by the function `Save`

. Therefore the function `Save`

will ignore the
component

if you call it to write the
presentation `P`.primaryGeneratorWords`P` to a file. Hence this component will be lost if you read
the presentation back from that file, and it will be left to your own
responsibility to remember what the primary generators have been.

A few examples are given in section Tietze Transformations.

`PresentationSubgroupMtc( `

`G`, `H` )

`PresentationSubgroupMtc( `

`G`, `H`, `string` )

`PresentationSubgroupMtc( `

`G`, `H`, `printlevel` )

`PresentationSubgroupMtc( `

`G`, `H`, `string`, `printlevel` )

`PresentationSubgroupMtc`

returns a presentation record (see
Presentation Records) containing a presentation for the subgroup `H` of
the finitely presented group `G`. It uses a Modified Todd-Coxeter
method to construct this presentation.

The generators in the resulting presentation will be named by

, `string`1

, ..., the default string is `string`2`"_x"`

.

The optional `printlevel` parameter can be used to restrict or to extend
the amount of output provided by the `PresentationSubgroupMtc`

command.
In particular, by specifying the `printlevel` parameter to be 0, you can
suppress the output of the `DecodeTree`

command which is called by the
`PresentationSubgroupMtc`

command (see below). The default value of
`printlevel` is 1.

The so called Modified Todd-Coxeter method was proposed, in slightly different forms, by Nathan S. Mendelsohn and William O. J. Moser in 1966. Moser's method was proved by Michael J. Beetham and Colin M. Campbell (see BC76). Another proof for a special version was given by D. H. McLain (see McL77). It was generalized to cover a broad spectrum of different versions (see the survey Neu82). Moser's method was implemented by Harvey A. Campbell (see Cam71. Later, a Modified Todd-Coxeter program was implemented in St. Andrews by David G. Arrell, Sanjiv Manrai, and Michael F. Worboys (see AMW82) and further developed by David G. Arrel and Edmund F. Robertson (see AR84) and by Volkmar Felsch in the SPAS system Spa89.

The `Modified Todd-Coxeter`

method performs an enumeration of coset
representatives. It proceeds like an ordinary coset enumeration (see
`CosetTableFpGroup`

CosetTableFpGroup), but as the product of a coset
representative by a group generator or its inverse need not be a coset
representative itself, the Modified Todd-Coxeter has to store a kind of
correction element for each coset table entry. Hence it builds up a so
called **augmented coset table** of `H` in `G` consisting of the ordinary
coset table and a second table in parallel which contains the associated
subgroup elements.

Theoretically, these subgroup elements could be expressed as words in the
given generators of `H`, but in general these words tend to become
unmanageable because of their enormous lengths. Therefore, a highly
redundant list of subgroup generators is built up starting from the given
(``**primary**'') generators of `H` and adding additional
(``**secondary**'') generators which are defined as abbreviations of
suitable words of length two in the preceding generators such that each
of the subgroup elements in the augmented coset table can be expressed as
a word of length at most one in the resulting (primary **and** secondary)
subgroup generators.

Then a rewriting process (which is essentially a kind of Reidemeister
rewriting process) is used to get relators for `H` from the defining
relators of `G`.

The resulting presentation involves all the primary, but not all the
secondary generators of `H`. In fact, it contains only those secondary
generators which explicitly occur in the augmented coset table. If we
extended this presentation by those secondary generators which are not
yet contained in it as additional generators, and by the definitions of
all secondary generators as additional relators, we would get a
presentation of `H`, but, in general, we would end up with a large number
of generators and relators.

On the other hand, if we avoid this extension, the current presentation
will not necessarily define `H` although we have used the same rewriting
process which in the case of the `SubgroupPresentationRrs`

command
computes a defining set of relators for `H` from an augmented coset table
and defining relators of `G`. The different behaviour here is caused by
the fact that coincidences may have occurred in the Modified Todd-Coxeter
coset enumeration.

To overcome this problem without extending the presentation by all
secondary generators, the `SubgroupPresentationMtc`

command applies the
so called **tree decoding** algorithm which provides a more economical
approach. The reader is strongly recommended to carefully read section
DecodeTree where this algorithm is described in more detail. Here we
will only mention that this procedure adds many fewer additional
generators and relators in a process which in fact eliminates all
secondary generators from the presentation and hence finally provides a
presentation of `H` on the primary, i.e., the originally given,
generators of `H`. This is a remarkable advantage of the
`SubgroupPresentationMtc`

command compared to the
`SubgroupPresentationRrs`

command. But note that, for some particular
subgroup `H`, the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier method might quite well
produce a more concise presentation.

The resulting presentation is returned in the form of a presentation
record, `P` say.

As the function `PresentationSubgroupRrs`

desribed above (see there for
details), the function `PresentationSubgroupMtc`

returns a list of the
primary subgroup generators of `H` in form of a component

. In fact, this list is not very exciting here
because it is just a copy of the list `P`.primaryGeneratorWords

, however it is
needed to guarantee a certain consistency between the results of the
different functions for computing subgroup presentations.
`H`.generators

Though the tree decoding routine already involves a lot of Tietze transformations, we recommend that you try to further simplify the resulting presentation by appropriate Tietze transformations (see Tietze Transformations).

An example is given in section DecodeTree.

`PresentationSubgroup( `

`G`, `H` )

`PresentationSubgroup( `

`G`, `H`, `string` )

`PresentationSubgroup( `

`G`, `cosettable` )

`PresentationSubgroup( `

`G`, `cosettable`, `string` )

`PresentationSubgroup`

returns a presentation record (see Presentation
Records) containing a presentation for the subgroup `H` of the finitely
presented group `G`.

As second argument, you may provide either the subgroup `H` itself or its
coset table in `G`.

In the case of providing the subgroup `H` itself as argument, the
current **GAP3** implementation offers a choice between two different
methods for constructing subgroup presentations, namely the Reduced
Reidemeister-Schreier and the Modified Todd-Coxeter procedure. You can
specify either of them by calling the commands `PresentationSubgroupRrs`

or `PresentationSubgroupMtc`

, respectively. Further methods may be added
in a later **GAP3** version. If, in some concrete application, you don't
care for the method to be selected, you may use the
`PresentationSubgroup`

command as a kind of default command. In the
present installation, it will call the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier
method, i.e., it is identical with the `PresentationSubgroupRrs`

command.

A few examples are given in section Tietze Transformations.

`PresentationNormalClosureRrs( `

`G`, `H` )

`PresentationNormalClosureRrs( `

`G`, `H`, `string` )

`PresentationNormalClosureRrs`

returns a presentation record (see
Presentation Records), `P` say, containing a presentation for the
normal closure of the subgroup `H` of the finitely presented group `G`.
It uses the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier method to construct this
presentation. This provides a possibility to compute a presentation for
a normal subgroup for which only ``normal subgroup generators'', but
not necessarily a full set of generators are known.

The generators in the resulting presentation will be named by

, `string`1

, ..., the default string is `string`2`"_x"`

.

`PresentationNormalClosureRrs`

first establishes an intermediate group
record for the factor group of `G` by the normal closure `N`, say, of `H`
in `G`. Then it performs a coset enumeration of the trivial subgroup in
that factor group. The resulting coset table can be considered as coset
table of `N` in `G`, hence a presentation for `N` can be constructed
using the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier algorithm as described for the
`PresentationSubgroupRrs`

command.

As the function `PresentationSubgroupRrs`

desribed above (see there for
details), the function `PresentationNormalClosureRrs`

returns a list of
the primary subgroup generators of `N` in form of a component

.
`P`.primaryGeneratorWords

`PresentationNormalClosure( `

`G`, `H` )

`PresentationNormalClosure( `

`G`, `H`, `string` )

`PresentationNormalClosure`

returns a presentation record (see
Presentation Records) containing a presentation for the normal closure
of the subgroup `H` of the finitely presented group `G`. This provides a
possibility to compute a presentation for a normal subgroup for which
only ``normal subgroup generators'', but not necessarily a full set of
generators are known.

If, in a later release, **GAP3** offers different methods for the
construction of normal closure presentations, then
`PresentationNormalClosure`

will call one of these procedures as a kind
of default method. At present, however, the Reduced
Reidemeister-Schreier algorithm is the only one implemented so far.
Therefore, at present the `PresentationNormalClosure`

command is
identical with the `PresentationNormalClosureRrs`

command described
above.

`SimplifiedFpGroup( `

`G` )

`SimplifiedFpGroup`

applies Tietze transformations to a copy of the
presentation of the given finitely presented group `G` in order to reduce
it with respect to the number of generators, the number of relators, and
the relator lengths.

`SimplifiedFpGroup`

returns the resulting finitely presented group (which
is isomorphic to `G`).

gap> F6 := FreeGroup( 6, "G" );; gap> G := F6 / [ F6.1^2, F6.2^2, F6.4*F6.6^-1, F6.5^2, F6.6^2, > F6.1*F6.2^-1*F6.3, F6.1*F6.5*F6.3^-1, F6.2*F6.4^-1*F6.3, > F6.3*F6.4*F6.5^-1, F6.1*F6.6*F6.3^-2, F6.3^4 ];; gap> H := SimplifiedFpGroup( G ); Group( G.1, G.3 ) gap> H.relators; [ G.1^2, G.1*G.3^-1*G.1*G.3^-1, G.3^4 ]

In fact, the command

` H := SimplifiedFpGroup( G ); `

is an abbreviation of the command sequence

P := PresentationFpGroup( G, 0 );; SimplifyPresentation( P ); H := FpGroupPresentation( P );

which applies a rather simple-minded strategy of Tietze transformations
to the intermediate presentation record `P` (see Presentation Records).
If for some concrete group the resulting presentation is unsatisfying,
then you should try a more sophisticated, interactive use of the
available Tietze transformation commands (see Tietze Transformations).

The **GAP3** commands being described in this section can be used to modify
a group presentation in a presentation record by Tietze transformations.

In general, the aim of such modifications will be to **simplify** the given
presentation, i.e., to reduce the number of generators and the number of
relators without increasing too much the sum of all relator lengths which
we will call the **total length** of the presentation. Depending on the
concrete presentation under investigation one may end up with a nice,
short presentation or with a very huge one.

Unfortunately there is no algorithm which could be applied to find the
shortest presentation which can be obtained by Tietze transformations
from a given one. Therefore, what **GAP3** offers are some lower-level
Tietze transformation commands and, in addition, some higher-level
commands which apply the lower-level ones in a kind of default strategy
which of course cannot be the optimal choice for all presentations.

The design of these commands follows closely the concept of the ANU Tietze transformation program designed by George Havas Hav69 which has been available from Canberra since 1977 in a stand-alone version implemented by Peter Kenne and James Richardson and later on revised by Edmund F. Robertson (see HKRR84, Rob88).

\vspace5mm In this section, we first describe the higher-level commands
`SimplifyPresentation`

, `TzGo`

, and `TzGoGo`

(the first two of these
commands are identical).

Then we describe the lower-level commands `TzEliminate`

, `TzSearch`

,
`TzSearchEqual`

, and `TzFindCyclicJoins`

. They are the bricks of which
the preceding higher-level commands have been composed. You may use them
to try alternative strategies, but if you are satisfied by the
performance of `TzGo`

and `TzGoGo`

, then you don't need them.

Some of the Tietze transformation commands listed so far may eliminate
generators and hence change the given presentation to a presentation on a
subset of the given set of generators, but they all do **not** introduce
new generators. However, sometimes you will need to substitute certain
words as new generators in order to improve your presentation. Therefore
**GAP3** offers the two commands `TzSubstitute`

and
`TzSubstituteCyclicJoins`

which introduce new generators. These commands
will be described next.

Then we continue the section with a description of the commands
`TzInitGeneratorImages`

and `TzPrintGeneratorImages`

which can be used to
determine and to display the images or preimages of the involved
generators under the isomorphism which is defined by the sequence of
Tietze transformations which are applied to a presentation.

Subsequently we describe some further print commands, `TzPrintLengths`

,
`TzPrintPairs`

, and `TzPrintOptions`

, which are useful if you run the
Tietze transformations interactively.

At the end of the section we list the **Tietze options** and give their
default values. These are parameters which essentially influence the
performance of the commands mentioned above. However, they are not
specified as arguments of function calls. Instead, they are associated
to the presentation records: Each presentation record keeps its own
set of Tietze option values in the form of ordinary record components.

`SimplifyPresentation( `

`P` )

`TzGo( `

`P` )

`SimplifyPresentation`

performs Tietze transformations on a presentation
`P`. It is perhaps the most convenient of the interactive Tietze
transformation commands. It offers a kind of default strategy which, in
general, saves you from explicitly calling the lower-level commands it
involves.

Roughly speaking, `SimplifyPresentation`

consists of a loop over a
procedure which involves two phases: In the **search phase** it calls
`TzSearch`

and `TzSearchEqual`

described below which try to reduce the
relator lengths by substituting common subwords of relators, in the
**elimination phase** it calls the command `TzEliminate`

described below
(or, more precisely, a subroutine of `TzEliminate`

in order to save some
administrative overhead) which tries to eliminate generators that can be
expressed as words in the remaining generators.

If `SimplifyPresentation`

succeeds in reducing the number of generators,
the number of relators, or the total length of all relators, then it
displays the new status before returning (provided that you did not set
the print level to zero). However, it does not provide any output if all
these three values have remained unchanged, even if the `TzSearchEqual`

command involved has changed the presentation such that another call of
`SimplifyPresentation`

might provide further progress. Hence, in such a
case it makes sense to repeat the call of the command for several times
(or to call instead the `TzGoGo`

command which we will describe next).

As an example we compute a presentation of a subgroup of index 408 in
*PSL(2,17)*.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" );; gap> G := F2 / [ F2.1^9, F2.2^2, (F2.1*F2.2)^4, (F2.1^2*F2.2)^3 ];; gap> a := G.1;; b := G.2;; gap> H := Subgroup( G, [ (a*b)^2, (a^-1*b)^2 ] );; gap> Index( G, H ); 408 gap> P := PresentationSubgroup( G, H ); << presentation with 8 gens and 36 rels of total length 111 >> gap> P.primaryGeneratorWords; [ b, a*b*a ] gap> P.protected := 2;; gap> P.printLevel := 2;; gap> SimplifyPresentation( P ); #I eliminating _x7 = _x5 #I eliminating _x5 = _x4 #I eliminating _x18 = _x3 #I eliminating _x8 = _x3 #I there are 4 generators and 8 relators of total length 21 #I there are 4 generators and 7 relators of total length 18 #I eliminating _x4 = _x3^-1*_x2^-1 #I eliminating _x3 = _x2*_x1^-1 #I there are 2 generators and 4 relators of total length 14 #I there are 2 generators and 4 relators of total length 13 #I there are 2 generators and 3 relators of total length 9 gap> TzPrintRelators( P ); #I 1. _x1^2 #I 2. _x2^3 #I 3. _x2*_x1*_x2*_x1

Note that the number of loops over the two phases as well as the number of subword searches or generator eliminations in each phase are determined by a set of option parameters which may heavily influence the resulting presentation and the computing time (see Tietze options below).

`TzGo`

is just another name for the `SimplifyPresentation`

command. It
has been introduced for the convenience of those **GAP3** users who are
used to that name from the **go** option of the ANU Tietze transformation
stand-alone program or from the **go** command in SPAS.

`TzGoGo`

performs Tietze transformations on a presentation `P`. It
repeatedly calls the `TzGo`

command until neither the number of
generators nor the number of relators nor the total length of all
relators have changed during five consecutive calls of `TzGo`

.

This may remarkably save you time and effort if you handle small presentations, however it may lead to annoyingly long and fruitless waiting times in case of large presentations.

`TzEliminate( `

`P` )

`TzEliminate( `

`P`, `gen` )

`TzEliminate( `

`P`, `n` )

`TzEliminate`

tries to eliminate a generator from a presentation `P` via
Tietze transformations.

Any relator which contains some generator just once can be used to
substitute that generator by a word in the remaining generators. If such
generators and relators exist, then `TzEliminate`

chooses a generator for
which the product of its number of occurrences and the length of the
substituting word is minimal, and then it eliminates this generator from
the presentation, provided that the resulting total length of the
relators does not exceed the associated Tietze option parameter

. The default value of `P`.spaceLimit

is `P`.spaceLimit`infinity`

,
but you may alter it appropriately (see Tietze options below).

If you specify a generator `gen` as second argument, then `TzEliminate`

only tries to eliminate that generator.

If you specify an integer `n` as second argument, then `TzEliminate`

tries to eliminate up to `n` generators. Note that the calls
`TzEliminate( `

and `P` )`TzEliminate( `

are equivalent.
`P`, 1 )

`TzSearch`

performs Tietze transformations on a presentation `P`. It
tries to reduce the relator lengths by substituting common subwords of
relators by shorter words.

The idea is to find pairs of relators *r _{1}* and

Two of the Tietze option parameters which are listed at the end of this
section may strongly influence the performance and the results of the
`TzSearch`

command. These are the parameters

and
`P`.saveLimit

. The first of them has the following effect.
`P`.searchSimultaneous

When TzSearch has finished its main loop over all relators, then, in
general, there are relators which have changed and hence should be
handled again in another run through the whole procedure. However,
experience shows that it really does not pay to continue this way until
no more relators change. Therefore, `TzSearch`

starts a new loop only if
the loop just finished has reduced the total length of the relators by at
least

per cent.
`P`.saveLimit

The default value of

is 10.
`P`.saveLimit

To understand the effect of the parameter

, we
have to look in more detail at how `P`.searchSimultaneous`TzSearch`

proceeds.

First, it sorts the list of relators by increasing lengths. Then it
performs a loop over this list. In each step of this loop, the current
relator is treated as **short relator** *r _{1}*, and a subroutine is called
which loops over the succeeding relators, treating them as

As this subroutine performs a very expensive process, it has been
implemented as a C routine in the **GAP3** kernel. For the given relator
*r _{1}* of length

To improve the efficiency of this process we allow the subroutine to
handle several short relators simultaneously provided that they have the
same minimal match length. If, for example, it handles *n* short
relators simultaneously, then you save *n - 1* loops over the long
relators *r _{2}*, but you pay for it by additional fruitless subword
comparisons. In general, you will not get the best performance by always
choosing the maximal possible number of short relators to be handled
simultaneously. In fact, the optimal choice of the number will depend on
the concrete presentation under investigation. You can use the parameter

`P`.searchSimultaneous

to prescribe an upper bound for the number of
short relators to be handled simultaneously.
The default value of

is 20.
`P`.searchSimultaneous

`TzSearchEqual`

performs Tietze transformations on a presentation `P`.
It tries to alter relators by substituting common subwords of relators by
subwords of equal length.

The idea is to find pairs of relators *r _{1}* and

`TzSearch`

. Otherwise, if `TzSearchEqual`

substitutes
each copy of
The Tietze option parameter

is used by
`P`.searchSimultaneous`TzSearchEqual`

in the same way as described for `TzSearch`

.

However, `TzSearchEqual`

does not use the parameter

:
The loop over the relators is executed exactly once.
`P`.saveLimit

`TzFindCyclicJoins`

performs Tietze transformations on a presentation
`P`. It searches for pairs of generators which generate the same cyclic
subgroup and eliminates one of the two generators of each such pair it
finds.

More precisely: `TzFindCyclicJoins`

searches for pairs of generators
*a* and *b* such that (possibly after inverting or conjugating some
relators) the set of relators contains the commutator *[a,b]*, a power
*a ^{n}*, and a product of the form

`TzFindCyclicJoins`

uses the Euclidian algorithm to
express

`TzSubstitute( `

`P`, `word` )

`TzSubstitute( `

`P`, `word`, `string` )

There are two forms of the command `TzSubstitute`

. This is the first one.
It expects `P` to be a presentation and `word` to be either an abstract
word or a Tietze word in the generators of `P`. It substitutes the given
word as a new generator of `P`. This is done as follows.

First, `TzSubstitute`

creates a new abstract generator, *g* say, and adds
it to the presentation `P`, then it adds a new relator *g ^{-1} \! .
\! word * to

`_x``i`

as described with the function
`AddGenerator`

(see Changing Presentations).
More precisely: If, for instance, `word`

is an abstract word, a call

` TzSubstitute( P, word );`

is more or less equivalent to

AddGenerator( P ); g := P.generators[Length( P.generators )]; AddRelator( P, g^-1 * word );

whereas a call

` TzSubstitute( P, word, string );`

is more or less equivalent to

g := AbstractGenerator( string ); AddGenerator( P, g ); AddRelator( P, g^-1 * word );

The essential difference is, that `TzSubstitute`

, as a Tietze
transformation of `P`, saves and updates the lists of generator images
and preimages if they are being traced under the Tietze transformations
applied to `P` (see the function `TzInitGeneratorImages`

below), whereas
a call of the function `AddGenerator`

(which does not perform Tietze
transformations) will delete these lists and hence terminate the tracing.

Example.

gap> G := PerfectGroup( 960, 1 ); PerfectGroup(960,1) gap> P := PresentationFpGroup( G ); << presentation with 6 gens and 21 rels of total length 84 >> gap> P.generators; [ a, b, s, t, u, v ] gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 3 generators and 10 relators of total length 81 #I there are 3 generators and 10 relators of total length 80 gap> TzPrintGenerators( P ); #I 1. a 31 occurrences involution #I 2. b 26 occurrences #I 3. t 23 occurrences involution gap> a := P.generators[1];; gap> b := P.generators[2];; gap> TzSubstitute( P, a*b, "ab" ); #I substituting new generator ab defined by a*b #I there are 4 generators and 11 relators of total length 83 gap> TzGo(P); #I there are 3 generators and 10 relators of total length 74 gap> TzPrintGenerators( P ); #I 1. a 23 occurrences involution #I 2. t 23 occurrences involution #I 3. ab 28 occurrences

`TzSubstitute( `

`P` )

`TzSubstitute( `

`P`, `n` )

`TzSubstitute( `

`P`, `n`, `eliminate` )

This is the second form of the command `TzSubstitute`

.
It performs Tietze transformations on the presentation `P`.
Basically, it substitutes a squarefree word of length 2 as a new
generator and then eliminates a generator from the extended generator
list. We will describe this process in more detail.

The parameters `n` and `eliminate` are optional. If you specify
arguments for them, then `n` is expected to be a positive integer, and
`eliminate` is expected to be 0, 1, or 2. The default values are *n = 1*
and *eliminate = 0*.

`TzSubstitute`

first determines the `n` most frequently occurring
squarefree relator subwords of length 2 and sorts them by decreasing
numbers of occurrences. Let *ab* be the `n`th word in that list, and let
`i` be the smallest positive integer which has not yet been used as a
generator number. Then `TzSubstitute`

defines a new generator

(see `P`.`i``AddGenerator`

for details), adds it to the presentation together
with a new relator *P.i ^{-1}ab*, and replaces all occurrences of

`P`.`i`

.
Finally, it eliminates some generator from the extended presentation.
The choice of that generator depends on the actual value of the
`eliminate` parameter:

If `eliminate` is zero, then the generator to be eliminated is chosen as
by the `TzEliminate`

command. This means that in this case it may well
happen that it is the generator

just introduced which is now
deleted again so that you do not get any remarkable progress in
transforming your presentation. On the other hand, this procedure
guaranties that the total length of the relators will not be increased by
a call of `P`.`i``TzSubstitute`

with *eliminate = 0*.

Otherwise, if `eliminate` is 1 or 2, then `TzSubstitute`

eliminates the
respective factor of the substituted word *ab*, i.e., *a* for *eliminate
= 1* or *b* for *eliminate = 2*. In this case, it may well happen that
the total length of the relators increases, but sometimes such an
intermediate extension is the only way to finally reduce a given
presentation.

In order to decide which arguments might be appropriate for the next call
of `TzSubstitute`

, often it is helpful to print out a list of the most
frequently occurring squarefree relator subwords of length 2. You may
use the `TzPrintPairs`

command described below to do this.

As an example we handle a subgroup of index 266 in the Janko group *J _{1}*.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" );; gap> J1 := F2 / [ F2.1^2, F2.2^3, (F2.1*F2.2)^7, > Comm(F2.1,F2.2)^10, Comm(F2.1,F2.2^-1*(F2.1*F2.2)^2)^6 ];; gap> a := J1.1;; b := J1.2;; gap> H := Subgroup ( J1, [ a, b^(a*b*(a*b^-1)^2) ] );; gap> P := PresentationSubgroup( J1, H ); << presentation with 23 gens and 82 rels of total length 530 >> gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 3 generators and 47 relators of total length 1368 #I there are 2 generators and 46 relators of total length 3773 #I there are 2 generators and 46 relators of total length 2570 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 46 relators of total length 2568 gap> TzGoGo( P ); gap> # We do not get any more progress without substituting a new gap> # generator gap> TzSubstitute( P ); #I substituting new generator _x28 defined by _x6*_x23^-1 #I eliminating _x28 = _x6*_x23^-1 gap> # GAP cannot substitute a new generator without extending the gap> # total length, so we have to explicitly ask for it gap> TzPrintPairs( P ); #I 1. 504 occurrences of _x6 * _x23^-1 #I 2. 504 occurrences of _x6^-1 * _x23 #I 3. 448 occurrences of _x6 * _x23 #I 4. 448 occurrences of _x6^-1 * _x23^-1 gap> TzSubstitute( P, 2, 1 ); #I substituting new generator _x29 defined by _x6^-1*_x23 #I eliminating _x6 = _x23*_x29^-1 #I there are 2 generators and 46 relators of total length 2867 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 45 relators of total length 2417 #I there are 2 generators and 45 relators of total length 2122 gap> TzSubstitute( P, 1, 2 ); #I substituting new generator _x30 defined by _x23*_x29^-1 #I eliminating _x29 = _x30^-1*_x23 #I there are 2 generators and 45 relators of total length 2192 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 42 relators of total length 1637 #I there are 2 generators and 40 relators of total length 1286 #I there are 2 generators and 36 relators of total length 807 #I there are 2 generators and 32 relators of total length 625 #I there are 2 generators and 22 relators of total length 369 #I there are 2 generators and 18 relators of total length 213 #I there are 2 generators and 13 relators of total length 141 #I there are 2 generators and 12 relators of total length 121 #I there are 2 generators and 10 relators of total length 101 gap> TzPrintPairs( P ); #I 1. 19 occurrences of _x23 * _x30^-1 #I 2. 19 occurrences of _x23^-1 * _x30 #I 3. 14 occurrences of _x23 * _x30 #I 4. 14 occurrences of _x23^-1 * _x30^-1 gap> # If we save a copy of the current presentation, then later we gap> # will be able to restart the computation from the current state gap> P1 := Copy( P );; gap> # Just for demonstration, let's make an inconvenient choice gap> TzSubstitute( P, 3, 1 ); #I substituting new generator _x31 defined by _x23*_x30 #I eliminating _x23 = _x31*_x30^-1 #I there are 2 generators and 10 relators of total length 122 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 9 relators of total length 105 gap> # The presentation is worse than the one we have saved, so let's gap> # restart from that one again gap> P := Copy( P1 ); << presentation with 2 gens and 10 rels of total length 101 >> gap> TzSubstitute( P, 2, 1); #I substituting new generator _x31 defined by _x23^-1*_x30 #I eliminating _x23 = _x30*_x31^-1 #I there are 2 generators and 10 relators of total length 107 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 9 relators of total length 84 #I there are 2 generators and 8 relators of total length 75 gap> TzSubstitute( P, 2, 1); #I substituting new generator _x32 defined by _x30^-1*_x31 #I eliminating _x30 = _x31*_x32^-1 #I there are 2 generators and 8 relators of total length 71 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 7 relators of total length 56 #I there are 2 generators and 5 relators of total length 36 gap> TzPrintRelators( P ); #I 1. _x32^5 #I 2. _x31^5 #I 3. _x31^-1*_x32^-1*_x31^-1*_x32^-1*_x31^-1*_x32^-1 #I 4. _x31*_x32*_x31^-1*_x32*_x31^-1*_x32*_x31*_x32^-2 #I 5. _x31^-1*_x32^2*_x31*_x32^-1*_x31^2*_x32^-1*_x31*_x32^2

As shown in the preceding example, you can use the `Copy`

command to save
a copy of a presentation record and to restart from it again if you want
to try an alternative strategy. However, this copy will be lost as soon
as you finish your current **GAP3** session. If you use the `Save`

command
(see Presentation Records) instead, then you get a permanent copy on a
file which you can read in again in a later session.

`TzSubstituteCyclicJoins`

performs Tietze transformations on a
presentation `P`. It tries to find pairs of generators *a* and *b*, say,
for which among the relators (possibly after inverting or conjugating
some of them) there are the commutator *[a,b]* and powers *a ^{m}* and

Any sequence of Tietze transformations applied to a presentation record
`P`, starting from an ``old'' presentation *P _{1}* and ending up with a
``new'' presentation

`TzInitGeneratorImages`

.
`TzInitGeneratorImages`

initializes three components of `P`:

:`P`.oldGenerators-

This is the list of the old generators. It is initialized by a copy of the current list of generators,

.`P`.generators

:`P`.imagesOldGens-

This will be the list of the images of the old generators as Tietze words in the new generators. For each generator*g*, the_{i}*i*-th entry of the list is initialized by the Tietze word`[i]`

.

:`P`.preImagesNewGens-

This will be the list of the preimages of the new generators as Tietze words in the old generators. For each generator*g*, the_{i}*i*-th entry of the list is initialized by the Tietze word`[i]`

.

This means, that *P _{1}* is defined to be the current presentation and

`P`.imagesOldGens

will cause the Tietze transformations
functions to update the lists of images and preimages whenever they are
called.
You can reinitialize the tracing of the generator images at any later
state by just calling the function `TzInitGeneratorImages`

again. For, if
the above components do already exist when `TzInitGeneratorImages`

is
being called, they will first be deleted and then initialized again.

There are a few restrictions concerning the tracing of generator images:

In general, the functions `AddGenerator`

, `AddRelator`

, and
`RemoveRelator`

described in section Changing Presentations do not
perform Tietze transformations as they may change the isomorphism type of
the presentation. Therefore, if any of them is called for a presentation
in which generator images and preimages are being traced, it will delete
these lists.

If the function `DecodeTree`

is called for a presentation in which
generator images and preimages are being traced, it will not continue to
trace them. Instead, it will delete the corresponding lists, then decode
the tree, and finally reinitialize the tracing for the resulting
presentation.

As stated in the description of the function `Save`

(see Presentation
Records), the function `Read`

cannot properly recover a component
involving abstract generators different from the current generators when
it reads a presentation which has been written to a file by the function
`Save`

. Therefore the function `Save`

will ignore the component

if you call it to write the presentation `P`.oldGenerators`P` to a
file. Hence this component will be lost if you read the presentation back
from that file, and it will be left to your own responsibility to
remember what the old generators have been.

If `P` is a presentation in which generator images and preimages are
being traced through all Tietze transformations applied to `P`,
`TzPrintGeneratorImages`

prints the preimages of the current generators
as Tietze words in the old generators and the images of the old
generators as Tietze words in the current generators.

gap> G := PerfectGroup( 960, 1 ); PerfectGroup(960,1) gap> P := PresentationFpGroup( G ); << presentation with 6 gens and 21 rels of total length 84 >> gap> TzInitGeneratorImages( P ); gap> TzGo( P ); #I there are 3 generators and 11 relators of total length 96 #I there are 3 generators and 10 relators of total length 81 gap> TzPrintGeneratorImages( P ); #I preimages of current generators as Tietze words in the old ones: #I 1. [ 1 ] #I 2. [ 2 ] #I 3. [ 4 ] #I images of old generators as Tietze words in the current ones: #I 1. [ 1 ] #I 2. [ 2 ] #I 3. [ 1, -2, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1 ] #I 4. [ 3 ] #I 5. [ -2, 1, 3, 1, 2 ] #I 6. [ 1, 3, 1 ] gap> # Print the old generators as words in the new generators. gap> gens := P.generators; [ a, b, t ] gap> oldgens := P.oldGenerators; [ a, b, s, t, u, v ] gap> for i in [ 1 .. Length( oldgens ) ] do > Print( oldgens[i], " = ", > AbstractWordTietzeWord( P.imagesOldGens[i], gens ), "\n" ); > od; a = a b = b s = a*b^-1*a*t*a*b*a t = t u = b^-1*a*t*a*b v = a*t*a

`TzPrintLengths`

prints the list of the lengths of all relators of the
given presentation `P`.

`TzPrintPairs( `

`P` )

`TzPrintPairs( `

`P`, `n` )

`TzPrintPairs`

determines in the given presentation `P` the `n` most
frequently occurring squarefree relator subwords of length 2 and prints
them together with their numbers of occurrences. The default value of
`n` is 10. A value *n = 0* is interpreted as `infinity`

.

This list is a useful piece of information in the context of using the
`TzSubstitute`

command described above.

Several of the Tietze transformation commands described above are
controlled by certain parameters, the **Tietze options**, which often have
a tremendous influence on their performance and results. However, in
each application of the commands, an appropriate choice of these option
parameters will depend on the concrete presentation under investigation.
Therefore we have implemented the Tietze options in such a way that they
are associated to the presentation records: Each presentation record
keeps its own set of Tietze option parameters in the form of ordinary
record components. In particular, you may alter the value of any of
these Tietze options by just assigning a new value to the respective
record component.

`TzPrintOptions`

prints the Tietze option components of the specified
presentation `P`.

The Tietze options have the following meaning.

`protected`

:-

The first

generators in a presentation`P`.protected`P`are protected from being eliminated by the Tietze transformations functions. There are only two exceptions: The option

is ignored by the functions`P`.protected`TzEliminate(`

and`P`,`gen`)`TzSubstitute(`

because they explicitly specify the generator to be eliminated. The default value of`P`,`n`,`eliminate`)`protected`

is 0.

`eliminationsLimit`

:-

Whenever the elimination phase of the`TzGo`

command is entered for a presentation`P`, then it will eliminate at most

generators (except for further ones which have turned out to be trivial). Hence you may use the`P`.eliminationsLimit`eliminationsLimit`

parameter as a break criterion for the`TzGo`

command. Note, however, that it is ignored by the`TzEliminate`

command. The default value of`eliminationsLimit`

is 100.

`expandLimit`

:-

Whenever the routine for eliminating more than 1 generators is called for a presentation`P`by the`TzEliminate`

command or the elimination phase of the`TzGo`

command, then it saves the given total length of the relators, and subsequently it checks the current total length against its value before each elimination. If the total length has increased to more than

per cent of its original value, then the routine returns instead of eliminating another generator. Hence you may use the`P`.expandLimit`expandLimit`

parameter as a break criterion for the`TzGo`

command. The default value of`expandLimit`

is 150.

`generatorsLimit`

:-

Whenever the elimination phase of the`TzGo`

command is entered for a presentation`P`with*n*generators, then it will eliminate at most*n -*

generators (except for generators which turn out to be trivial). Hence you may use the`P`.generatorsLimit`generatorsLimit`

parameter as a break criterion for the`TzGo`

command. The default value of`generatorsLimit`

is 0.

`lengthLimit`

:-

The Tietze transformation commands will never eliminate a generator of a presentation`P`, if they cannot exclude the possibility that the resulting total length of the relators exceeds the value of

. The default value of`P`.lengthLimit`lengthLimit`

is`infinity`

.

`loopLimit`

:-

Whenever the`TzGo`

command is called for a presentation`P`, then it will loop over at most

of its basic steps. Hence you may use the`P`.loopLimit`loopLimit`

parameter as a break criterion for the`TzGo`

command. The default value of`loopLimit`

is`infinity`

.

`printLevel`

:-

Whenever Tietze transformation commands are called for a presentation`P`with`P`.printLevel*= 0*, they will not provide any output except for error messages. If`P`.printLevel*= 1*, they will display some reasonable amount of output which allows you to watch the progress of the computation and to decide about your next commands. In the case`P`.printLevel*= 2*, you will get a much more generous amount of output. Finally, if`P`.printLevel*= 3*, various messages on internal details will be added. The default value of`printLevel`

is 1.

`saveLimit`

:-

Whenever the`TzSearch`

command has finished its main loop over all relators of a presentation`P`, then it checks whether during this loop the total length of the relators has been reduced by at least

per cent. If this is the case, then`P`.saveLimit`TzSearch`

repeats its procedure instead of returning. Hence you may use the`saveLimit`

parameter as a break criterion for the`TzSearch`

command and, in particular, for the search phase of the`TzGo`

command. The default value of`saveLimit`

is 10.

`searchSimultaneous`

:-

Whenever the`TzSearch`

or the`TzSearchEqual`

command is called for a presentation`P`, then it is allowed to handle up to

short relators simultaneously (see for the description of the`P`.searchSimultaneously`TzSearch`

command for more details). The choice of this parameter may heavily influence the performance as well as the result of the`TzSearch`

and the`TzSearchEqual`

commands and hence also of the search phase of the`TzGo`

command. The default value of`searchSimultaneous`

is 20.

\vspace5mm As soon as a presentation record has been defined, you may alter any of its Tietze option parameters at any time by just assigning a new value to the respective component.

To demonstrate the effect of the `eliminationsLimit`

parameter, we will
give an example in which we handle a subgroup of index 240 in a group of
order 40320 given by a presentation due to B. H. Neumann. First we
construct a presentation of the subgroup, and then we apply to it the
`TzGoGo`

command for different values of the `eliminationsLimit`

parameter (including the default value 100). In fact, we also alter the
`printLevel`

parameter, but this is only done in order to suppress most
of the output. In all cases the resulting presentations cannot be
improved any more by applying the `TzGoGo`

command again, i.e., they are
the best results which we can get without substituting new generators.

gap> F3 := FreeGroup( "a", "b", "c" );; gap> G := F3 / [ F3.1^3, F3.2^3, F3.3^3, (F3.1*F3.2)^5, > (F3.1^-1*F3.2)^5, (F3.1*F3.3)^4, (F3.1*F3.3^-1)^4, > F3.1*F3.2^-1*F3.1*F3.2*F3.3^-1*F3.1*F3.3*F3.1*F3.3^-1, > (F3.2*F3.3)^3, (F3.2^-1*F3.3)^4 ];; gap> a := G.1;; b := G.2;; c := G.3;; gap> H := Subgroup( G, [ a, c ] );; gap> P := PresentationSubgroup( G, H ); << presentation with 224 gens and 593 rels of total length 2769 >> gap> for i in [ 28, 29, 30, 94, 100 ] do > Pi := Copy( P ); > Pi.eliminationsLimit := i; > Print( "#I eliminationsLimit set to ", i, "\n" ); > Pi.printLevel := 0; > TzGoGo( Pi ); > TzPrintStatus( Pi ); > od; #I eliminationsLimit set to 28 #I there are 2 generators and 95 relators of total length 10817 #I eliminationsLimit set to 29 #I there are 2 generators and 5 relators of total length 35 #I eliminationsLimit set to 30 #I there are 3 generators and 98 relators of total length 2928 #I eliminationsLimit set to 94 #I there are 4 generators and 78 relators of total length 1667 #I eliminationsLimit set to 100 #I there are 3 generators and 90 relators of total length 3289

Similarly, we demonstrate the influence of the `saveLimit`

parameter by
just continuing the preceding example for some different values of the
`saveLimit`

parameter (including its default value 10), but without
changing the `eliminationsLimit`

parameter which keeps its default value
100.

gap> for i in [ 9, 10, 11, 12, 15 ] do > Pi := Copy( P ); > Pi.saveLimit := i; > Print( "#I saveLimit set to ", i, "\n" ); > Pi.printLevel := 0; > TzGoGo( Pi ); > TzPrintStatus( Pi ); > od; #I saveLimit set to 9 #I there are 3 generators and 97 relators of total length 5545 #I saveLimit set to 10 #I there are 3 generators and 90 relators of total length 3289 #I saveLimit set to 11 #I there are 3 generators and 103 relators of total length 3936 #I saveLimit set to 12 #I there are 2 generators and 4 relators of total length 21 #I saveLimit set to 15 #I there are 3 generators and 143 relators of total length 18326

`DecodeTree`

eliminates the secondary generators from a presentation `P`
constructed by the Modified Todd-Coxeter (see `PresentationSubgroupMtc`

)
or the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier procedure (see
`PresentationSubgroupRrs`

, `PresentationNormalClosureRrs`

). It is called
automatically by the `PresentationSubgroupMtc`

command where it reduces
`P` to a presentation on the given subgroup generators.

In order to explain the effect of this command we need to insert a few
remarks on the subgroup presentation commands described in section
Subgroup Presentations. All these commands have the common property
that in the process of constructing a presentation for a given subgroup
`H` of a finitely presented group `G` they first build up a highly
redundant list of generators of `H` which consists of an (in general
small) list of ``primary'' generators, followed by an (in general
large) list of ``secondary'' generators, and then construct a
presentation *P _{0}*, say,

The role of the primary generators depends on the concrete choice of the
subgroup presentation command. If the Modified Todd-Coxeter method is
used, they are just the given generators of `H`, whereas in the case of
the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier algorithm they are constructed by the
program.

Each of the secondary generators is defined by a word of length two in
the preceding generators and their inverses. By historical reasons, the
list of these definitions is called the **subgroup generators tree**
though in fact it is not a tree but rather a kind of bush.

Now we have to distinguish two cases. If *P _{0}* has been constructed by
the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier routines, it is a presentation of

Also in the case of the Modified Todd-Coxeter method, we could easily
extend *P _{0}* to a presentation of

Instead, we use the so called **tree decoding** procedure which has been
developed in St. Andrews by David G. Arrell, Sanjiv Manrai, Edmund
F. Robertson, and Michael F. Worboys (see AMW82, AR84).
It proceeds as follows.

Starting from *P = P _{0}*, it runs through a number of steps in each of
which it eliminates the current ``last'' generator (with respect to
the list of all primary and secondary generators). If the last generator

Note that the extension of `P` by one or two new generators is **not** a
Tietze transformation. In general, it will change the isomorphism type
of the group defined by `P`. However, it is a remarkable property of
this procedure, that at the end, i.e., as soon as all secondary
generators have been eliminated, it provides a presentation *P = P _{1}*,
say, which defines a group isomorphic to

`DecodeTree`

command and hence by
the `PresentationSubgroupMtc`

command.
If, in the other case, the presentation *P _{0}* has been constructed by the
Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier algorithm, then

`PresentationSubgroupRrs`

or `PresentationNormalClosureRrs`

) just
returns
As mentioned in section Subgroup Presentations, we recommend further
simplifying this presentation before using it. The standard way to do
this is to start from *P _{0}* and to apply suitable Tietze transformations,
e.g., by calling the

`TzGo`

or `TzGoGo`

commands. This is probably the
most efficient approach, but you will end up with a presentation on some
unpredictable set of generators. As an alternative, `DecodeTree`

command which you can use to eliminate all secondary
generators (provided that there are no space or time problems). For this
purpose, the subgroup presentation commands do not only return the
resulting presentation, but also the tree (together with some associated
lists) as a kind of side result in a component `P`.tree

of the
resulting presentation record
Note, however, that the tree decoding routines will not work correctly
any more on a presentation from which generators have already been
eliminated by Tietze transformations. Therefore, to prevent you from
getting wrong results by calling the `DecodeTree`

command in such a
situation, **GAP3** will automatically remove the subgroup generators tree
from a presentation record as soon as one of the generators is
substituted by a Tietze transformation.

Nevertheless, a certain misuse of the command is still possible, and we
want to explicitly warn you from this. The reason is that the Tietze
option parameters described in section Tietze Transformations apply to
the `DecodeTree`

command as well. Hence, in case of inadequate values of
these parameters, it may happen that the `DecodeTree`

routine stops
before all the secondary generators have vanished. In this case **GAP3**
will display an appropriate warning. Then you should change the
respective parameters and continue the process by calling the
`DecodeTree`

command again. Otherwise, if you would apply Tietze
transformations, it might happen because of the convention described
above that the tree is removed and that you end up with a wrong
presentation.

After a successful run of the `DecodeTree`

command it is convenient to
further simplify the resulting presentation by suitable Tietze
transformations.

As an example of an explicit call of the `DecodeTree`

command we compute
two presentations of a subgroup of order *384* in a group of order
*6912*. In both cases we use the Reduced Reidemeister-Schreier
algorithm, but in the first run we just apply the Tietze transformations
offered by the `TzGoGo`

command with its default parameters, whereas in
the second run we call the `DecodeTree`

command before.

gap> F2 := FreeGroup( "a", "b" );; gap> G := F2 / [ F2.1*F2.2^2*F2.1^-1*F2.2^-1*F2.1^3*F2.2^-1, > F2.2*F2.1^2*F2.2^-1*F2.1^-1*F2.2^3*F2.1^-1 ];; gap> a := G.1;; b := G.2;; gap> H := Subgroup( G, [ Comm(a^-1,b^-1), Comm(a^-1,b), Comm(a,b) ] );; gap> # gap> # We use the Reduced Reidemeister Schreier method and default gap> # Tietze transformations to get a presentation for H. gap> P := PresentationSubgroupRrs( G, H ); << presentation with 18 gens and 35 rels of total length 169 >> gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 3 generators and 20 relators of total length 488 #I there are 3 generators and 20 relators of total length 466 gap> # We end up with 20 relators of total length 466. gap> # gap> # Now we repeat the procedure, but we call the tree decoding gap> # algorithm before doing the Tietze transformations. gap> P := PresentationSubgroupRrs( G, H ); << presentation with 18 gens and 35 rels of total length 169 >> gap> DecodeTree( P ); #I there are 9 generators and 26 relators of total length 185 #I there are 6 generators and 23 relators of total length 213 #I there are 3 generators and 20 relators of total length 252 #I there are 3 generators and 20 relators of total length 244 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 3 generators and 19 relators of total length 168 #I there are 3 generators and 17 relators of total length 138 #I there are 3 generators and 15 relators of total length 114 #I there are 3 generators and 13 relators of total length 96 #I there are 3 generators and 12 relators of total length 84 gap> # This time we end up with a shorter presentation.

As an example of an implicit call of the command via the
`PresentationSubgroupMtc`

command we handle a subgroup of index 240 in a
group of order 40320 given by a presentation due to B. H. Neumann.

gap> F3 := FreeGroup( "a", "b", "c" );; gap> a := F3.1;; b := F3.2;; c := F3.3;; gap> G := F3 / [ a^3, b^3, c^3, (a*b)^5, (a^-1*b)^5, (a*c)^4, > (a*c^-1)^4, a*b^-1*a*b*c^-1*a*c*a*c^-1, (b*c)^3, (b^-1*c)^4 ];; gap> a := G.1;; b := G.2;; c := G.3;; gap> H := Subgroup( G, [ a, c ] );; gap> InfoFpGroup1 := Print;; gap> P := PresentationSubgroupMtc( G, H );; #I index = 240 total = 4737 max = 4507 #I MTC defined 2 primary and 4446 secondary subgroup generators #I there are 246 generators and 617 relators of total length 2893 #I calling DecodeTree #I there are 115 generators and 382 relators of total length 1837 #I there are 69 generators and 298 relators of total length 1785 #I there are 44 generators and 238 relators of total length 1767 #I there are 35 generators and 201 relators of total length 2030 #I there are 26 generators and 177 relators of total length 2084 #I there are 23 generators and 167 relators of total length 2665 #I there are 20 generators and 158 relators of total length 2848 #I there are 20 generators and 148 relators of total length 3609 #I there are 21 generators and 148 relators of total length 5170 #I there are 24 generators and 148 relators of total length 7545 #I there are 27 generators and 146 relators of total length 11477 #I there are 32 generators and 146 relators of total length 18567 #I there are 36 generators and 146 relators of total length 25440 #I there are 39 generators and 146 relators of total length 38070 #I there are 43 generators and 146 relators of total length 54000 #I there are 41 generators and 143 relators of total length 64970 #I there are 8 generators and 129 relators of total length 20031 #I there are 7 generators and 125 relators of total length 27614 #I there are 4 generators and 113 relators of total length 36647 #I there are 3 generators and 108 relators of total length 44128 #I there are 2 generators and 103 relators of total length 35394 #I there are 2 generators and 102 relators of total length 34380 gap> TzGoGo( P ); #I there are 2 generators and 101 relators of total length 19076 #I there are 2 generators and 84 relators of total length 6552 #I there are 2 generators and 38 relators of total length 1344 #I there are 2 generators and 9 relators of total length 94 #I there are 2 generators and 8 relators of total length 86 gap> TzPrintGenerators( P ); #I 1. _x1 43 occurrences #I 2. _x2 43 occurrences

gap3-jm

11 Mar 2019